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我们的世界是虚拟的证据 – 译学馆
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我们的世界是虚拟的证据

What If the Earth Does Not Exist?

世界上第一台可编程的计算机ZUSE Z1
The world’s first programmable computer the ZUSE Z1
能够执行
was able to perform two flops
每秒两次浮点运算
or floating-point operations per second.
现代计算机的运算能力可以比它快27万亿倍
Modern computers do this 27 trillion times faster.
而这仅仅过了79年
And this has been achieved in a mere 79 years.
科学家预计
According to scientists,
计算机的能力将在
the power of computers will grow
未来一百年里会增长数百万倍
several million times more in the next hundred years.
很难想象
It’s hard to even begin to imagine
我们的孩子和孩子的孩子将生活在什么样的世界里
what kind of world our children and grandchildren will live in.
可能更像一个虚拟世界
Already, virtual worlds like the one,
比如 在侠盗猎车手这款游戏里
for example, in Grand Theft Auto,
细节的展示让人震惊
shock with their detail.
很容易让人想到在未来的五十年到一百年
It’s easy to imagine that they will become indistinguishable from reality
这个虚拟的世界将和真实世界难以区分
in the next 50 to 100 years.
事实上 这是有可能的
In fact, it’s possible that
我们能够创造一个虚拟的宇宙
we will be able to create virtual universes
并且让这个宇宙中的角色
in which the characters really think
相信他们有和我们一样的意识
and have minds similar to ours,
而不是认为自己活在一个模拟世界
but won’t know that they live in a simulation.
这在很多角度来看是非常令人恐惧的
This is frightening on many levels.
如果我们就是里面的角色呢?
And what if we are such characters already?
如果你看到的窗外的整个世界其实只是虚拟的呢?
What if the whole world that you see outside the window is a simulation?
哲学家 尼克·博斯特罗姆
Philosopher Nick Bostrom
在2003年第一次
first introduced the general public to this hypothesis,
把这种我们世界的虚拟性假设介绍给公众
regarding the virtuality of our world back in 2003.
它的本质是
Its essence was that
如果很多科学技术非常发达的文明已经存在于我们的宇宙中了
if many technologically developed civilizations exist in our universe,
那么很可能他们也可以创造
then it is likely that they can create simulations
模拟世界 就像你或者你的孩子
similar to those in which you or your children play
在电脑里玩的游戏模拟世界一样
sitting at your computers,
仅仅是把尺寸增大了几百万倍 以及更加真实感而已
only millions of times larger and more realistic.
这就意味着你我可能只是NPC
This means that you or I could be in the role of a NPC,
一种在一些国外沙盒游戏中设计的的非玩家角色
a non-player character in some alien sandbox
现在
right at this moment.
有些人已经开始严肃的讨论这个问题
And people really are taking this seriously.
比如 伊隆·马斯克在2016年说
Elon Musk, for example, said in 2016 that
我们生活在一个非虚拟世界的可能性
there’s only one chance in a billion
只有十亿分之一
that our reality is not a simulation.
当你听到这种说法从马斯克这样人的口中说出的时候
When you hear such a thing from somebody like Elon Musk,
可能对我们生活的世界的真实性开始产生严重的怀疑
serious doubts regarding the nature of our reality begin to arise.
这迫使我们至少要
This forces us to at least begin
对这个问题的答案开始进行认真的探寻
a serious search for some kind of answers.
所以我们现在就开始
And this we will do now.
我们虚拟性的证据
Evidence of Our Virtuality
侠盗猎车手5 也就是GTA5
Grand Theft Auto 5, also known as GTA 5,
是一个非常好的例子来证明所有这些是如何实现的
is a very good example of how all this could be accomplished.
在这个游戏里 设置了一个虚拟城市叫圣洛都(Los Santos)
In the game, on one of the many streets of its virtual city called Los Santos,
现在这个城市的街道上你可以看到非常熟悉的景象
you see a very familiar picture.
你周围有很多车
You are surrounded by cars
它们都在赶着从一个地方到另一个地方
that are hurrying to and fro somewhere into the distance,
人们走在人行道上
and crowds of people lying the sidewalks.
总体来说 所有的东西都和我们现实生活中非常相似
In general, everything is very similar to how it is in real life.
在这个游戏里 这种日常的事物会一直
And in the game, this general picture accompanies you
伴随着你的整个游戏过程
everywhere all the time,
无论你是在圣洛都的任何地方
regardless of your location in Los Santos.
如果你转个弯
If you turn a corner,
你会看到更多的车和人经过
you see more cars and more crowds of passers-by.
因此当你走在圣洛都的街头的时候
So being on that Los Santos street,
你可能会想象在这个城市的其他人
you might think that the same story is happening to others
也和你一样生活着并发生一样的故事
that life is alive and happening in the whole city
只是在这个城市不同的地方
at any point in the urban landscape.
但事实上 这并不是真的
But in fact, this is simply not true.
你不要忘了
You must not forget
你看到的任何东西都是假象
that everything you see is just an illusion
为了你而制造的假象
built just for you.
当你走在这条街上
While you are on the street
我们把它命名为街区A
with the conditional name A,
那么街区B就会变成完全空白的
absolute nothingness has filled Street B.
没有任何事在那里发生
Nothing happens there.
这个游戏不断地 神奇地
The game continuously, magically
描画出你生活的世界
draws for you this living active life,
当街区B隐没在暗处的时候
while Street B drowns in silence
实际上就是不存在的
and in fact barely exists.
所有现在的游戏都是用这个原则运行的
All modern video games work on this principle.
当你不在虚拟城市的某个地点的时候
When you are absent from a certain location of a virtual city,
这个地点就什么都没有
there is absolutely nothing at this location.
没有人
No people.
没有车
No cars.
甚至没有城市本身
No city at self.
游戏设计着用这种优化方式
The developers optimize the game
来减少游戏对计算机硬件的负荷
in order to reduce the load on the computer hardware.
感谢有这个技术
Thanks to this,
你可以尽情享受令人难以置信的真实画面和游戏物理引擎
you can enjoy such an incredibly realistic graphics and game physics
这是现代游戏产业的奇迹
that are the modern masterpieces of the gaming industry.
如果一个玩家甚至一个角色
If a player or rather a character
转身看某些东西
turns and looks at something,
计算机会把影像创建在他面前
the computer makes the image in front of him
并且尽可能的逼真细致
as detailed as possible.
而在玩家身后的背景和物体
And the textures and objects behind the players’ back,
由于不在视野范围内
that is out of view,
计算机会尽可能的把它们处理成简单模式
become as simple as computationally possible,
甚至完全消失
or really disappear altogether
除非这些东西可能会再次出现
except as a potentiality.
就像我们前面说的
As we said,
这种方法可以减少游戏平台的工作量
this allows the computer to reduce the load on the game platform
以保证维持精美的画面
while maintaining beautiful graphics.
在GTA5中 如果在你站在高处俯视
If you look at the location from on high in GTA 5,
整个城市看上去就好像
the whole city will look as if
在你的手掌心里
as if it is in the palm of your hand.
你会看到汽车是如何来来回回的疾驰在
And you will see how cars are rushing up and down
无数的大街上
all of the numerous streets.
这是否意味着一个控制台或者计算机的能力
So does that mean the power of a console or computer
就可以足够来处理这样一个复杂而细致的画面?
is enough for such a complex and detailed picture?
让我们先不要急着下结论
Let’s not jump to conclusions.
事实上在游戏的物理引擎里
The fact is that the physics of the game also gets simplified
同样也对远离观察者的物体比如车进行了简化处理
for objects like cars that are far from the observer.
如果我们向很远的地方发射火箭
If we fire rocket into such distances,
我们很可能根本无法看到它爆炸
we can barely see it explode.
如果我们飞近看
If we fly closer,
这个爆炸就会看上去更清晰和真实
then the explosion looks much more detailed and realistic
同时这也需要计算机更多的运算处理
and requires far more computer power.
接下来的例子是游戏 文明5
The next example is the game Civilization 5.
如果你需要快速的移动视角
If you quickly move the camera
从地图的一端到另一端
from one end of the map to the other,
你可以看到你要去的地点会被下载到你眼前
you will see the location loaded right before your eyes.
当游戏引擎制作的不太完美的时候
The game engine is not perfect,
你可以看到画面是如何根据你的动作产生反应的
so we can see how the view responds to our actions,
并实现我们所看到的东西
realizing that we are looking at it.
那就是说
That is,
玩家通过他或她真实看世界的方式
the observer influences the game world
影响到游戏里的世界
by the very fact of his or her observation.
这同样也是未来任何游戏运行的方式
This is how any video games of the future will work as well.
即便是那种超级计算机能够同步计算
Even if super-powerful computers can simultaneously calculate
一个巨大空间里的大大小小的物体
all the more or less large objects in a large location.
即使过去很多年
Even over many years,
很多小细节仍然被保留渲染
small details will remain to be rendered.
苍蝇 草叶 甚至微生物
Flies, blades of grass, and yes, even microbes,
就算只有很少的一点点
of which there are quite a few,
也会在玩家的凝视的时候
all of which will be loaded
被下载到他们眼前
only under the gaze of the observer player.
所有的事物都会以最优化的目的被设计
Everything is for the sake of optimization.
因此 在游戏的话题做导言之后
So, after that gaming preface,
我们现在来看第一条理论
We now move on to the first group of the theory
就是我们生活在一个虚拟矩阵世界里
that we are living in a matrix-like simulation.
你可能知道或记得
You may know about or remember
在物理学历史上
one of the most famous experiments
有一个著名的实验
in the history of physics.
托马斯·杨实验
The experiment of Thomas Young,
也叫双缝实验
the double slit experiment.
这是物理学史上的一个巧妙实验
It was a real coup in physics
并吸引后来的很多科学家投身于量子力学的研究
and led many scientists into the study of quantum mechanics.
如果你把一堆实心小球扔向
If you throw solid balls and a shield
一块中间有狭缝的挡板
with a slit cut into it.
会产生一长条由很多撞击点的组成的条纹带
A single diffused strip designating these strike points
显示在挡板后面的投射屏上
will appear on the screen behind the shield.
如果挡板上有两条狭缝
If there are two slits in the shield,
那么就会有两条条纹带
then there will be two strips.
那么如果是波通过这种挡板会发生什么?
But how will waves behave if aimed at the shield?
波会穿过狭缝后散布开来
They will pass through the slot and spread out.
波的最大的冲击位置
The greatest impact of the waves
是在正对着狭缝的那条线上
will be in the line of the slit,
就和小球例子里的一样
as in the case with the balls.
但如果你增加到两条狭缝
But if you add a second slit,
情况就不一样了
everything changes.
会有一些交替出现的干涉条纹带
A number of alternating interference strips will appear
在投射屏上
on the projection screen.
当我们使用光束投向这两条狭缝的时候
And when we shine light on the two strips,
就会出现这种情况
this is exactly what happens.
这就是杨如何来证明他的光波理论的
And this is how Mr. Young proved the wave theory of light.
如果光是由像小球一样微粒子组成的
If light were corpuscular like a particle
而并非像波一样的性质
instead of wave-like,
那么光的表现就应该和小球一样
it would behave like the balls
穿过两条狭缝以后
and the screen would show two strips of light
在投射屏上形成两条光条纹带
corresponding to the two slits.
但这并没有发生
That didn’t happen.
之后 电子和质子也被证明有相同的性质
Later, it turned out that electrons and protons behave exactly the same way,
表现为和波相似 而不是和粒子一样
showing that they also seemed to exist as waves and not as points.
然后就有了一种假想
There was one assumption that
也许光那些都是微粒子
perhaps light and the others were particles,
它们以某种方式互相碰撞并弹开
and that somehow the particles bumped into each other and flew apart.
因此 为了证明这点
So, to test this,
物理学家决定用电子
physicists decided to shoot electrons
一个接着一个依次射向目标
at the target one by one, single file.
你觉得会发生什么?
And what do you think happened?
想象一下最奇怪的事情
The strangest thing imaginable.
干涉图案仍然出现在屏幕上
The interference pattern still appeared on the screen.
就好像单个电子用某种方式
It seemed that the single electron somehow
分成了两个波 穿过了两条狭缝
divided into two waves, passed through both slits,
然后它们互相干涉
then interfered with themselves.
这绝不可能
Impossible.
因此物理学家试图找出
So physicists tried to find out
这个电子实际经过哪条狭缝
through which gap the electron actually passes .
他们安装了测量装置去检测
They installed measuring instruments to check this.
发现另一件不可能的事情发生了
Another seeming impossibility occurred.
电子又开始表现得不像波了
The electron stopped behaving like waves
而像粒子一样
and began acting like particles,
在投射屏上形成了两条分开的条纹带
and left a trace on the screen of two distinct strips
没有任何干涉现象发生
with no interference.
物理学家不得不承认这一疯狂的现象
They had to admit something completely mind-blowing
因为我们观察或测量的事实
that the fact of our observation or measurement
摧毁了光子的波函数
destroy the wave function of the photons,
导致光子仅仅表现出粒子的现象
causing them to become like points corpuscular.
电子受到观察方法的影响
The electron under the influence of observation
表现得像粒子
behaved like a particle,
穿过一条狭缝 而不是两条
flying through one slit and not through two.
解释
Interpretations.
好 这看起来和游戏引擎的运行非常相似
Well, it certainly looks like the work of a game engine,
是不是?
doesn’t it?
这也可能让你想到
This might make you think that
我们的世界就像运行在一台计算机上的游戏程序
our world is running like a game on a computer.
这台计算机还没有达到足够强大的能力
The computer’s power is not enough to calculate
去运算每一个微粒子的每一个动作
the motion of each and every particle.
因此它使用一种简化的模型
So it uses a simplified model
并把精确算法仅运用在
and applies precise calculations,
当有观察者要去仔细看这个微粒子的时候
only if an observer needs to look at the particle.
以避免去破坏观察者在现实世界中看到的假象
So as not to break the illusion of the reality of the world for the observer.
这样一种解释在过去是不可能被提出的
Such an explanation could not have occurred to people from the past.
托马斯·杨的实验结果在1803年发表
The results of Thomas Young’s experiment were published in 1803
当时是不可能有人会想到虚拟现实的
when it was impossible to even think about virtual reality.
这里有很多理论去解释
There were many theories suggested
前面到底发生了什么
for just what the heck was going on.
这里面最著名的一个
And the most famous of them,
就是哥本哈根诠释
the Copenhagen Interpretation,
发表在1927年
was proposed in 1927.
Niels Bohr和Werner Heisenberg提出
Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg suggested that
最基本的微粒子即是波又是粒子
elementary particles are both waves and particles.
测试的时候
To measure an electron,
必须把电子撞击到测试仪器的屏幕上
it is necessary to strike it against the screen of the measuring device.
这导致电子的波功能丧失
The wave functions of the electron collapse
而变成仅有粒子的功能
when it is measured and it becomes only a particle.
这就意味着不是因为观察者而是测试仪器
And this means that it is not exactly the observer but the measuring device
影响了观测的结果
that influences the result of observation.
但如果这个理论是正确的
But if this theory is correct,
它仍然没有降低
it still does not discount the hypothesis of
我们前面说的虚拟矩阵世界假设的可能性
the simulated matrix world.
比如
For example,
一个程序编写的光子
a program photon could propagate
在网络世界中以波的形式传播
in the network as a wave,
但当节点负载量过高时被重置
and restart when the node is overloaded,
并转化为粒子方式运行
turning into a particle.
这种方式就可以解释
This way, one can explain
量子波和波函数坍塌的原因了
both quantum waves and the collapse of the wave function.
第二个流行的解释是
The second most popular explanation
微粒子的这种表现是
of the behavior of particles is
由于存在多重平行世界
the many-worlds interpretation.
简而言之
To greatly simplify,
就像这样
it looks something like this.
我们假设有很多平行的宇宙
We can assume that there are parallel universes
不同的宇宙都有相同的自然运行法则
in which the same laws of nature operate.
在测量一个量子对象的每一个动作的时候
And for each act of measuring a quantum object,
世界被划分成几个版本
the world splits into several versions.
每一个版本都有自己的测量结果
Each of these versions sees its own measurement result
并依照这个平行宇宙里的规则
and acts according to it in its universe.
在一个门外汉的眼里
In the eyes of the layman,
这是一个奇怪的解释
this is a strange explanation.
但这是一个自由的世界
But it’s a free world,
至少我们是这样认为的
at least we think it is.
因此任何人都可以决定
And so anyone can decide
他们最喜欢哪种解释结果
which interpretation they like best.
在二十年前的一次
In a poll of physicists held 20 years ago,
由马里兰大学赞助的研讨会上物理学家能做了一次投票
and a symposium under the auspices of the University of Maryland,
13票投给哥本哈根诠释
13 voted for the Copenhagen interpretation,
8票投给多重平行世界原理
8 for the many- worlds theory,
还有几个物理学家投给了其它一些不太流行的理论
several other scientists chose other less popular options,
有18位参加者反对任何一种解释
and 18 participants opposed all known interpretations.
争议仍然一直存在
Disputes are still ongoing.
到了2006年
In 2006,
科学家们进行一次更加复杂的
scientists conducted a more sophisticated version of
双缝实验
the two-slit experiment.
这一次叫延迟选择实验
This time with a deferred choice element involved.
用简化的形式来描述就像这样
In simplified form, it goes something like this.
微粒子还是对着
Particles are again shot through
一块有两条狭缝的障碍物发射
a barrier with two slits in it.
但这次对于微粒子的观察是在
But this time, the observation of which slit they pass through
它们已通过狭缝以后
is made at a time when the particles have already passed through the slit,
且还没有撞击到投射屏前的某个时点
but have not yet hit the projection screen.
就像观察者仅在某一个特定的时刻
Like an observer who only opens his eyes
睁开他的双眼
after a certain moment,
你能想象得出来么?
and can you imagine this?
电子在这一时刻表现为粒子的行为特征
The electrons behaved like particles at this moment.
仿佛它从电子枪被发射出的那一刻起
As if nothing had happened
没有任何事情发生
from the moment of their launch from electron gun.
也没有穿过那两条狭缝
As if they did not pass through both slits
也没有表现为波的性质
and did not represent a wave.
就好像微粒子在被测量之前
It seems the particles knew
已经知道
that they would be measured
它们会被测量
before it ever happened.
第二个证据是
The second proof,
虚拟矩阵世界是否存在的线索
the next hint at the existence of a matrix
可以通过宇宙中最高的速度获得
can be arrived at from the maximum speed in the universe.
光速
The speed of light.
爱因斯坦曾断言在真空环境里没有任何事物的速度可以超过光子
Einstein exclaimed that nothing could move faster than photons in a vacuum.
光速是一个极限和常量值
The speed of light is a limit and a constant.
并且
Additionally,
物体移动得越快
the faster an object moves,
相对于物体的时间就会越慢
the more time slows for that object.
在每秒30万公里的速度下
At the speed of 300,000 km per second,
时间会完全停止
time stops altogether.
这就是说
That is,
你要到一个遥远的星系
you could get to distant galaxies.
比如说三十亿光年的距离
Let’s say 3 billion light years away,
乘坐具有这样速度的宇宙飞船 可以在一眨眼的功夫到达
in the blink of an eye, on a spacecraft that had such a speed,
当然这是按照乘坐人的时间算的
according to your time, of course.
而对于地球上观察者的时间来算的话
Those same 3 billion years would pass
已经过去了30亿年
for a terrestrial observer.
因此对于光子来说时间是静止的
So time for a photon stands at zero.
它的速度无法再加快
It cannot accelerate faster,
因为在时间已经静止的情况下
for this it would have to slow down time even more,
光子不可能再减慢时间了
which is impossible as time has already stopped.
但为什么速度和时间有这样的联系呢?
But why do speed and time have such a relationship?
为什么空间和时间是关联的呢?
Why are space and time interrelated?
这里的答案也提示存在一个虚拟世界
The answer suggests a virtual world.
虚拟矩阵世界假设
The matrix hypothesis assumes that
光速为信息处理的一种速度
the speed of light is a product of information processing.
换句话说
That is,
我们现在的世界正在以某个特定的速度进行更新
the world is being updated at a certain rate.
而这个速度要比目前任何超级计算机快几万亿倍
It’s a trillion times faster than any of our supercomputers now,
但它们的原理是相同的
but the principle was the same.
时间会随着速度的增加而变慢
Time slows down with an increase in speed.
由于虚拟世界使用的是虚拟时间
Because virtual reality depends on virtual time,
每一个计算机处理周期被定为一个时间周期
each processing cycle is one tick.
当电脑运行变慢的时候
When the computer slows,
游戏的时间也会变慢
the playing time also slows down a bit.
这个我们的现实世界非常相似
This is very similar to the way in our world
当速度增加或接近巨大物体的时候时间会变慢
that time slows down with increasing speed or near to massive objects,
这表明我们的宇宙可能是虚拟的
which points to the possible virtuality of our universe.
我们可以假设
It can be assumed
当一艘船以极高的速度冲刺的时候
that in a ship that rushes with tremendous speed,
计算机为了节省系统资源
the processing cycles of the system hang
而不得不把这个进程挂起了
for the sake of saving resources.
第三个证据
The third piece of evidence.
我们生活在虚拟矩阵世界的最有力的证据是
The most serious proof that we live in a matrix simulation
量子纠缠
is quantum entanglement.
好 那具体是什么呢
Well, what is exactly?
光子在太空中飞行的方式被认为是旋转前进的
A photon flying through space can be considered to be rotating.
也被叫做自旋
That is, it has something called spin.
事实上 光子并不真正旋转
In fact, photons don’t really rotate,
而这只是一个简化的模式
but this is a simplified model.
因此 物理学家相信
So, physicists believe that
在微粒子被观察之前
most likely before a particle is observed,
很可能没有特定的自旋方向
it does not even have a specific spin.
那就是说 如果没有人去看光子的话
That is, no one is looking at the photon yet,
无法确定它是按照哪种方式自旋的
so it cannot determine which way to turn,
因此光子的状态
and is considered to be
被认为处于一种不确定的叠加态
in a superposition of uncertainty.
看上去就像对于大自然来说
It would seem that it’s difficult for nature to calculate
很难去计算每一个微粒子和它们的每一次旋转
the rotation of each and every particle.
因此使用了一个简化的方案
And so it uses a simplified scheme for this.
但是同样当观察者出现的时候
But again, when an observer appears,
微粒在物理性上变得更复杂和真实
the particle becomes physically more complex and more real.
它的旋转就可以被计算了
And its rotation is calculated.
这个实验最早是被爱因斯坦提出的
An experiment was proposed by Albert Einstein,
目的是为了测试哥本哈根诠释的证据
which was to test the Copenhagen Interpretation for strength.
从这个实验里获得了一些非常有意思的结果
Some very interesting results were obtained from this experiment.
它的本质有点像这样
The essence of it goes like this.
如果一个原子 比如铯原子
If an atom, for example, Cesium
在不同的方向发出两个光子
emits two photons in different directions.
根据动量守恒定律
Then because of the law of conservation of momentum,
它们的状态将相互保持关联
their state will be interconnected.
如果它们中的一个是从下往上旋转的
If one of them rotates from the bottom up,
那么另一个将会从上往下旋转
then the other will rotate from the top down.
并且它们会永远保持相反的方向进行自旋
Always, they will always have spinned in opposite directions.
这就叫量子纠缠
This is called quantum entanglement.
但是 你还记得光子在被观察以前
But, remember the photons do not know which way to spin
并不知道用哪种方式自旋
before they are observed.
这就是说在这种情况下
So in this case,
如果观察的结果已经选择了一个方向
if the fact of observation made one choose one of the options,
那么这个光子的伙伴必须立刻
its tangled partner must then immediately have a spin
按照相反方向自转
in the opposite direction.
也就是说 通过我们观察了其中一个光子的事实行为
That is, by the very fact of our observation of one photon,
影响到了另一个光子的自旋方向
we affect the spin of the other photon,
即使我们都没有去观察第二个光子
even though we did not observe the second photon.
第二个光子也被迫不仅要找到一个自旋的方向
And the second photon is required not only to find a spin
还要立刻开始自旋
but to do so instantly,
甚至是这两个光子在相距非常远的情况下
even if the photons are at a great distance from each other.
这就意味着如果一对光子用某种方式被送到
That means that if the entangled photons were somehow sent
宇宙相反的两端
even to different ends of the universe.
一个光子用哪种方式进行自旋的信息
This information about which way it should be spinning
必须用某种方式飞过或穿过宇宙传递到它的伙伴
should somehow fly or jump across the universe to its partner
传递的速度将是光速的几万亿倍
at several quadrillion times faster than the speed of light,
这样基本上它的伙伴才能立刻开始它的自旋
so that it basically, instantly gets its spin.
这是不可思议的
This is incredible.
它违反了我们已知的物理学定律
It violates the very laws of physics as we know them,
因为没有任何东西在真空状态下可以比光速更快
because nothing can move faster than photons in a vacuum.
然而 第二个光子仍然可以用某种方式
However, the second photon still manages somehow
立刻得到这个信息
to get this information in zero time.
但这是怎么做到的呢?
But how?
光子的伙伴是如何
How does the partner entangled photons
在这么短的时间内知道它的同伴正在被观察
learn with such speed that a colleague was observed?
并且又知道它同伴自旋的方向
and so know to spin in some particular direction.
爱因斯坦深信
Einstein was convinced
这种瞬间连接是不可能的
such an instantaneous connection was impossible.
他认为当这一对光子在脱离原子的那一刻
And he assumed that when entangled photons emerge from the atom,
它们已经拥有了过去的信息
they already contain information about the past,
以及如果它们被观察或当它们被观察时
and know which direction they will rotate
它们将会自旋的方向
if or when they are observed.
那就是说 观察者并不改变任何事情
That is, the observer does not change things,
而仅仅是认出了微粒子的自旋方式而已
but only recognizes the spin of the particle.
但在爱因斯坦逝世17年后
But 17 years after Einstein’s death,
这个史上绝无仅有的天才
it turned out that this singular unparalleled genius
也在这个事情上犯了错误
was mistaken in this case.
这个理论是对的
That’s right.
而爱因斯坦错了
Einstein was wrong.
为了证明在观察的时候
To prove the presence or absence of information
是否存在微粒子自旋方向的信息
about the direction in which the particle rotates after observation,
爱尔兰物理学家约翰·贝尔(John Bell)
Irish physicist John Bell
设计了一个非常复杂而又巧妙的实验
set up a very complex and ingenious experiment.
实验的结果是令人震惊的
The results were astounding.
贝尔证实了一对纠缠粒子
Bell proved that the entangled particle
在被观察前是没有任何线索表明
does not have a clue before it is observed
它将会向哪个方向自旋
in which direction it will spin.
光子仅仅是在被测量的时候
The photon randomly chooses its spin
随机的选择了自旋的方向
only after measurement.
这就证明了成对的基本粒子
And this is proof that entangled elementary particles
可以相互传递信息
can transmit information to each other
并且速度快于光速
much faster than the speed of light.
这实验的本身比它的答案给我们带来的问题还要多
The experiment gave us more new questions than answers.
在2008年 一群来自日内瓦大学的研究者
In 2008, a group of researchers from the University of Geneva
决定去搞清楚纠缠粒子间
decided to clarify the speed of information exchange
信息交换的确切速度
between entangled particles.
它们把一对粒子互相分开
They were able to separate from each other,
相距18公里
two entangled photons at a distance of 18 kilometers.
他们测量是其中一个粒子
They measured one particle,
然后记录另一个粒子有多快会反应
and recorded how fast the second reacted to it.
他们使用的技术可以测量出
The technology they used allowed them to measure delay time of
在比光速快十万倍的速度下出现的延迟时间
up to 100,000 times faster than the speed of light.
但结果是竟然连这样极小的一个停顿也没有
But there wasn’t even such a miniscule pause as this.
也就是说 根据测量的结果
It turned out that, as measured,
光量子能够以至少比光速快十万倍的速度
the photons somehow were able to transmit information
传递信息
at least 100,000 times faster than the speed of light,
甚至很有可能是毫无延迟的实时传递
and maybe even instantly.
也许爱因斯坦是对的
Perhaps Einstein was right
他说实时通讯在物理世界是不可能的
when he said that instant communication in the physical world is impossible.
但如果我们用一个虚拟世界来
But if we substitute a virtual reality
代替物理世界
in place of the physical world,
实时连接就很容易解释
the instant connection is easily explained.
当两个粒子变成纠缠状态的时候
When two photons become entangled,
它们的程序就被合并共同适用这两个点
their programs are combined to jointly see the two points.
这样的合并程序可以
This combination of programs will respond for
对我们指定的任何一个点产生反应
for both pixels if we can call them that,
无论它们在哪个位置
no matter where they are.
当测量一个粒子的时候
At the moment of measuring one particle,
程序随机的选择一种自旋方向
its program randomly chooses one of the spins,
另一个粒子的程序立刻产生反应
and the program of the second immediately reacts.
这就是为什么距离不重要
It becomes clear why the distance isn’t important.
处理器并不需要去到那个地点让它自旋
The processor does not need to go to the pixel to ask it to spin,
即使是所谓的屏幕很大
even if the so-called screen is large,
甚至大到像宇宙一样
even as large as a universe.
物理学家说没有人真正理解量子力学
Physicists say that no one really understands quantum mechanics.
但如果我们假设我们的世界是虚拟的
But if we assume that our world is virtual,
所有的事情将迎刃而解
everything quickly becomes quite clear.
为了阐述基本粒子的世界和它们的相互作用
To describe the world of elementary particles and their interactions,
科学家使用量子力学来解释
scientists use quantum mechanics.
而爱因斯坦的广义相对论
And for the macro world,
被用来解释宏观世界
Einstein’s general theory of relativity is used.
但如果这两个世界都存在于自然中
But if these two worlds coexist in nature,
那么必须有一种理论
then a theory must exist
可以包含这两种解释
that would allow for both.
而这就是模拟世界假设的内容
And this is exactly what the hypothesis of simulation does.
它完美得解释了这点
It perfectly explains this.
宇宙大爆炸的神秘起源
The mysteries of the Big Bang,
空间扭曲 隧道效应
the curvature of space, the tunnel effect,
暗能量和暗物质
dark energy and dark matter,
都能在这个假设的基础上被很好的解释
all can be explained on the basis of the assumption.
有人会说这个模拟世界理论
They say this simulation theory,
即使被证实 也不能改变任何事物
even if confirmed, wouldn’t change anything.
但正式证实可以强烈地激发新的研究
But official confirmation could strongly spur new research
也许科学家能够发现
and perhaps scientists would be able to find
我们现在世界里新的问题
new shortcomings in our world.
并且利用这些问题创造出新的技术
And they could be used to create new technologies.
比如 如果量子效应是
For example, if quantum effects are caused
由于宇宙的虚拟性导致的
by the virtuality of the universe,
那么量子计算机或量子密码的创造
the creation of quantum computers or quantum cryptography
就可以用在我们世界的常规使用中
can be called the use of the conventions of our world.
我们是在一个虚拟矩阵世界么?
Are we in a matrix?
每年都有新的间接显示我们生活在虚拟矩阵世界的线索被发现
New, indirect hints that we live in a matrix are discovered every year.
按照这样的速度 大约30年后
At such a rate, in about 30 years,
我们的世界是虚拟的理论
the virtuality theory of our world could become
可能会变成像今天的进化论一样的
as official in the world of science
正式的科学世界理论
as the theory of evolution today.
也许在不久的将来在学校里
Perhaps it won’t be too long until they teach in schools
老师也会教学生我们生活在一个虚拟世界
that we live in a virtual world.
尽管这多少有点消极
Although it is somewhat demotivating,
你会认识到自己只是一个带有情感和自我意识的
realizing that you might be just a complicated program
复杂程序而已
with feelings and self-consciousness.
伊隆·马斯克相信
Elon Musk believes that
在另一方面 它可能也是好事
on the contrary, it would be good news.
模拟世界假设解决了费米悖论
The simulation hypothesis solves the Fermi paradox,
并显示智能文明能够
and shows that intelligent civilizations are able to
避免自我毁灭
avoid self-destruction and technologically grow
并在技术上成长并成功的创造了虚拟世界
to achieve even the creation of virtual world.
因此对于马斯克先生来说 虚拟矩阵世界的生活
So, life in the matrix for Mr. Musk is
是一种相当好的乌托邦
a pretty decent Utopia.
他希望这是真的
He wants this to be true.
顺便说一下 最近
By the way, recently
著名科学家Neil deGrasse Tyson和他的一些同事
the famous scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson and some of his colleagues
花了几个小时来辩论这个题目
spent several hours debating the topic.
宇宙是否是一个计算机模拟器?
Is the universe a computer simulation?
请一定要看
Be sure to watch it.
如果你喜欢这个话题
If you like this topic,
我建议你看一个电影“异次元骇客”
I advise you to see the film “The Thirteenth Floor”
当然还有“骇客帝国三部曲”
and of course the “Matrix Trilogy”.
别忘了给我们点赞和订阅我们的频道
And don’t forget to put likes and subscribe to the channel,
不然的话史密斯特工很快会来敲门
otherwise agent Smith will come knocking on your door very soon.
如果我们把你用胶带一圈圈的缠起来会是怎样
What will be if we wrap you round and round with scotch tape?
打好包扔到微波炉里
Throw the whole package into a microwave oven.
烤得非常透
Roast quite well.
回头一看有条饥饿的鲸鱼
See back to a giant hungry whale.
然后 把你在海里淹死并活埋
After that, drown you in the ocean, then bury you alive.
送你到太空
Send you into space,
然后在让你落回地球
then let you drop back down to earth,
直接落入马里亚纳海沟
straight to the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
在那之后 把你捞出来 在温暖的闪电风暴中弄干
After that, take you out and dry you under nice warm lighting storm.
给你穿好衣服 梳好头发
Dress you up. Comb you up.
粘在飞机上 爬升到3000英尺的高空
Stick you on a plane, climb to height of 3,000 feet.
然后……再一次扔下来
And… toss you out once more
当你向这坚硬的地面冲下去的时候
when you promise back down to unyielding surface.
当然 是没有降落伞的
Of course, without a parachute.
接下来会发生什么?
What will happen then?
让我们来问阿诺德吧:你感觉如何 伙计?
Let’s ask Arnold: How are you feeling, buddy?
你还能站着?
You still on your feet?
好吧 那试试这个怎样
Well then, how about this?
没时间解释了
There’s no time to explain.
快点击下面的链接
Just click on the link in the description
观看这个棒极了的新卡通系列的
and watch the first episode in this
第一集
awesomely great new cartoon series.
不久就会引爆整个互联网
Soon to explode across the entire damn Internet.
来吧 点击链接
Come on. Press the button.
你会忍不住订阅这个频道的
You can’t resist subscribing to this channel.

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译制信息
视频概述

用量子力学的实验结果来证明我们生活在一个虚拟世界

听录译者

安安

翻译译者

柳叶飞飞刀

审核员

审核员

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CyN8rYdX6g

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