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假如人类变成冷血动物会怎样? – 译学馆
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假如人类变成冷血动物会怎样?

What If Humans Were Cold-blooded Creatures? | Unveiled

What if Humans Were Cold-Blooded Creatures?
如果人类是冷血动物会怎么样呢
Humans can live almost anywhere on the planet.
人类几乎可以在地球的任何地方生存
We’re capable of adapting to the harsh conditions of the arctic circle,
我们有能力适应恶劣环境 比如北极圈
the high altitudes atop the Andes, and even in the midst of tropical jungles.
高海拔的安第斯山脉顶 甚至是热带丛林
In fact ,few species are spread as far and wide as humankind,
实际上 很少有物种可以像人类一样分布得如此广泛
with us even aiming to venture to the stars and colonise alien worlds.
我们甚至打算去其他星球探险 开拓外星世界
But could evolution have taken us down a totally different path?
但如果我们向另一个完全不同的方向进化会怎样呢?
This is Unveiled,
这里是《揭秘未知》
and today we’re answering the extraordinary question;
今天我们就要来回答这个特别的问题
What if humans were cold-blooded creatures?
如果人类是冷血动物会怎么样呢?
Are you a fiend for facts?
你对万事抱有求知欲吗?
Are you constantly curious?
你一直都富有好奇心吗?
Then why not subscribe to Unveiled for more clips like this one?
那么订阅《揭秘未知》来观看更多类似视频吧!
And ring the bell for more fascinating content!
请按铃获取更多精彩内容
First off, what do we actually mean by “warm” and “cold-blooded”?
首先 “温血”和“冷血”到底是什么意思呢?
Neither are the best nor most specific of terms.
这两个词都不是最精准的术语
Biologists would rather speak of “endothermic” and “ectothermic” creatures, referring
生物学家更倾向于使用“内温动物“与“外温动物“
to animals that either produce their own body heat, or don’t.
来描述能产生和不能产生自身热量的动物
As well as that, we have “homeothermic” or “poikilothermic” creatures, meaning
我们也有恒温动物与变温动物的说法
an animal either maintains its own internal body temperature,
也就是说 动物要么保持体内温度恒定
or it relies on its environment to regulate it.
要么依靠环境来调节体温
All told, as humans, we’re endothermic homeotherms,
总的来说 我们人类是恒温动物
because we produce our own body heat and maintain it ourselves, through our metabolism.
因为我们可以通过新陈代谢为自己产热 并维持体温
Most other mammals and birds also do this,
大部分其他哺乳动物和鸟类也能做到这一点
but cold-blooded animals-or “ectothermic poikilotherms” –
但是冷血动物或者说变温动物
are incapable of regulating their own temperature.
则不能调节他们的体温
That’s why you see lizards in the desert bathing
这就是为什么你会看到
in the baking sunlight,
蜥蜴在沙漠中晒太阳
because they need to warm up their bodies
因为它们需要将身体变暖
before their muscles and brains can work.
来让肌肉和大脑工作
Interestingly,though even these aren’t the only options that the natural world can throw up.
有趣的是 自然界这样的冷血动物示例还有很多
Palaeontologists now believe that some dinosaurs were actually “mesothermic”,
现在 古生物学家相信恐龙实际上是恒温动物
meaning that they survived via a combination of creating and maintain
这意味着 它们能够靠产热维持体温
ing their own body heat and utilising their environment.
并能利用环境 从而生存下来
But for this video,
但是在这个视频里
let’s just focus on the basic, non-dino categories.
让我们只关注人类 而不是恐龙
If humans had evolved to be cold-blooded instead of warm-blooded,
如果人类进化成了冷血动物
or even if we all miraculously turned cold-blooded overnight,
或者我们都奇迹般地在一夜之间变成冷血动物
one of the first big changes we’d all notice is we’d be eating less food.
那么我们会发现 一个首要的显著变化是食量变小
A lot less food.
变小很多
Even the so-called ‘ king of reptiles ’, the crocodile,
举个例子 所谓的爬行动物之王 鳄鱼
can actually go more than twelve months without eating anything at all.
甚至能在不吃东西的情况下生存十二个多月
They’re painted as ruthless killers of the deep,
它们一直被刻画成无情杀手
but typical crocs only average about fifty meals a year – or just one a week.
但实际上鳄鱼往往一年平均只吃50顿饭 或每周一顿
If humans ate so infrequently – rather than tucking into three square meals a day plus snacks,
如果人类也吃的这么少 而不是一天三顿饭再加零食
our food bills would definitely be much cheaper,
那我们在食物上的开销一定会更少
it’d also be much easier to feed everybody around the world,
让世界上的每个人都吃饱也就更容易
and we’d only need a tiny fraction of the land we use now for agriculture.
并且我们用于农业的土地也将只是现在的一小部分
Theoretically,nobody would ever have to go hungry.
理论上来说 这样就不会再有人挨饿了
Of course, you still could eat three meals a day,
当然 你依然可以每天吃三顿
if you wanted to.
只要你想
But with the much slower metabolism of a cold-blooded creature,
但是 因为冷血动物新陈代谢比较慢
the calories wouldn’t have anywhere to go,
卡路里会无法消耗
and the added food would translate into fat.
并且多余的食物会转化为脂肪
In lots of warm-blooded animals,
在很多温血动物中
fat is pretty important and essential
脂肪是非常重要和基础的
keeping mammals like seals and whales warm in freezing oceans, for example.
比如海豹和鲸鱼在冰冷的海里就靠脂肪保持温暖
But it could prove deadly very quickly were we cold-blooded,
但如果我们是冷血动物 脂肪将是致命的东西
causing us to overheat and die.
它会使我们因过热而死亡
Luckily,as a cold-blooded being,
幸运的是 作为冷血动物
you should never feel hungry enough for this to ever actually happen…
你永远不会因为太饿而吃很多 也就能避免发胖致死
but over-indulgence would definitely be off the menu.
但是作为代价你也不会有大量进食的欲望了
Assuming that you don’t eat too much, though,
作为冷血动物 尽管你吃得很少
it’d actually be harder to get sick as a cold-blooded animal.
却会很少生病
The constant heat of an endothermic homeotherm(as we currently are)
之前我们的身体就像一个恒温器
provides a perfect incubator for germ,
持续的热量为细菌提供了温床
which is why it’s so easy for us to get sick from just being near other sick people.
所以我们很容易因为接近其他病人而生病
But, we were cold-blooded,
但是 如果我们是冷血动物
our bodies wouldn’t be able to cultivate these germs as easily,
我们的身体就不再利于培养这些细菌
staving off potential infections.
也就避免了潜在感染
There is a deadly caveat, though,
然而 这样也有一个致命缺点
because our new-found cold-bloodedness
因为我们新发现的冷血因子
wouldn’t make it impossible to get sick;
并不能让人再也不生病
and if you did fall ill, the consequences could be dire.
而你一旦生病 结果会很可怕
You may not spread your disease,
你的病可能不会传染给别人
but if you got just a little too cold – say your heating breaks,
但只是轻微的冷意都将代表着热量流失
or the wind picks up when you’re waiting for a bus
或者当你等公交的时候
your lowered body temperature
你的体温会因为刮风而下降
could damage your immune system.
这就可能会损坏你的免疫系统
If an ectotherm is too cold for too long,
如果冷血动物长时间受冷
their body could stop functioning,
它们的身体将会停止运作
leaving them wholly unable to fight off disease and infection.
这让他们完全无法抵抗疾病和感染
As warm-blooded creatures, we can live anywhere with relative ease,
作为温血动物 我们通常只要增减衣物
usually by just adding or removing layers of clothing.
就可以在哪都过得相对舒适
We can even survive the likes of Antarctica with the right equipment.
如果有合适的装备 我们甚至能在南极洲这类地方生存
But,if we were cold-blooded,
但是 如果我们是冷血动物
the state of our environment becomes a matter of life or death every single day.
每天的环境状况将成为生死攸关的问题
Where most warm-blooded creatures maintain a body temperature of around 37 degrees Celsius,
大多数温血生物会把体温保持在37摄氏度左右
a cold-blooded creature is exactly the same temperature as its environment.
而冷血生物的体温会与周围环境保持一致
So,if humans were suddenly cold-blooded,
所以 如果人类突然变成冷血生物
we’d be much better off living in jungles
那么赤道地带和热带地区的丛林和沙漠
nd deserts, along the equator and in the tropics,
将成为更好的生存区
never straying too far north or south.
太南太北的地区都将不利于生存
If we did branch out to a colder region
如果我们真的搬去更冷的地方
we’d need to build complex habitats,
就需要建造复杂的居住地
designed to maintain a constant, reliable, 24/7 temperature.
以维持全天候稳定可靠的温度
Going outside for just a couple of minutes could result in death,
出去几分钟就可能导致死亡
so human settlements would have to be high-tech places –
所以人类住所一定是高科技场所
with our fundamental need for tolerable temperatures at their heart.
因为能够忍受的温度是我们内心的基本需求
Strangely, though travelling to places like Canada,
如果我们是一种高级变温动物
Russia or Scandinavia would be a lot harder,
那么去加拿大 俄罗斯
travelling into space might actually be easier
或斯堪的纳维亚这样的地方旅行会更困难
if we were a species of advanced ectotherms.
但奇怪的是 太空漫游反而可能会变容易
This is because it’d theoretically be easier to go into torpor
这是因为理论上 如果我们是变温动物
if we were ectothermic,
就会更容易进入休眠
which is a state of total inactivity some animals can enter
即一种完全不活跃状态
by slowing their metabolism to a stop.
某些动物可以通过减缓新陈代谢乃至停止来实现它
Putting humans into deep sleep is a staple sci-fi idea,
让人类进入深度睡眠是一种常见的科幻观点
but it’d be all the easier
但如果我们天生就能做到它
if we could just do this naturally,
而不需要复杂的尚未发明的技术辅助
without the need for complex technologies that we haven’t yet invented.
那么深度休眠就会容易得多
Send some deep space astronauts on a shuttle to Mars
我们可以通过这种方法用航天飞机把一些宇航员送去火星
and (if they’re cold-blooded) they could nap through the whole journey
如果他们是冷血动物 宇航员全程都可以打盹儿
meaning they needn’t take as much food and water with them
这意味着他们不需要带很多食物和水
and they needn’t deal with the loneliness.
他们也不会感到孤独
Though,of course,
但是 当然啦
actually living on Mars would be just as tricky for any ectotherm,
对任何变温动物来说 在火星上生活本来就很棘手
since the Red Planet’s average surface temperature is minus-60 degrees Celsius.
因为火星的平均地表温度是零下60摄氏度
There’s one final thing that’s pretty important, though: brain function.
还有一个很重要的因素是大脑机能
The human brain uses about 20 % of our current energy levels,
大脑会消耗我们当前20%的能量
which is 20 % of our daily caloric intake.
即我们日常摄入热量的20%
Clearly, we only ate one meal a week,
很显然 如果我们一周只吃一顿
our human brains wouldn’t receive the same power to reach the same levels…
大脑就得不到同样的能量来达到现在的同等水平
It’s why the world isn’t really run by a race of advanced lizard people.
这就是为什么统治世界的不是一群高级蜥蜴人
If there actually were lizard people,
如果真的有蜥蜴人
they’d be evolutionarily obliged to spend most of their days sunbathing
为了让他们的大脑和身体正常运作
just to get their brains and bodies to work
他们将不得不把大部分的时间用来晒太阳
and they’d have to stay stuck on the equator,
甚至为了能与恒温动物相匹敌
to even begin to match the potential of a warm-blooded rival.
他们也不得不在赤道居住
So,even with space travel,
所以 即使在太空探索上
the problems would again outweigh the plus points.
(变成冷血动物的)坏处也会超过好处
Yes,we might stand more of a chance of actually getting to other planets,
当然 我们可能会有更多机会探索其他星球
but would a cold-blooded crew be clever enough to work out what to do next?
但是冷血动物能聪明到足够决定接下来做什么吗?
Probably not.
可能不行
With this in mind, if humans had always been cold-blooded,
鉴于此 如果人类一直是冷血动物
evolution wouldn’t have happened in even remotely the same way.
那么进化甚至不会以同样的方式进行
We certainly wouldn’t be such a social species,
我们肯定不会成为现在这样的社会性种群
and our hunter/gatherer instincts wouldn’t have developed as they did.
我们的狩猎采集天赋将不会像现在一样发展
Instead,we’d all have sat around waiting for our next meal to arrive,
相反 我们都将坐着等待下一餐到来
expending all of our limited energy on trying to catch it in one strike
以求消耗我们有限的能量一击命中猎物
just like real-world reptiles do.
就像现实世界里的爬行动物一样
It’s why you see crocodiles floating ominously in the water for hours on end,
这就是为什么你会看到鳄鱼能在水面漂浮好几个小时
biding their time, for absolute efficiency.
那就是为了等待时机 获得绝对效率
Even if we did have some intelligence,
如果我们是冷血动物 即使我们有一些智慧
we wouldn’t have needed to co-operate to do things like build, farm, and generally invent.
也不需要去合作做事 比如建房子 种地 发明
The only time we’d ever really need to have met other people would’ve been for procreation.
我们需要与他人见面的唯一可能将是孕育后代
And,even then,
但是
reptiles and fish aren’t exactly known for their parental instincts,
爬行动物和鱼类的父母本能不是很强烈
instead tending to leave their offspring to fend for themselves,
他们往往会倾向于离开后代 自己照顾自己
or else ditch them before they’ve even hatched.
或者在后代孵化之前 就遗弃他们
And,as well as all of that,
综上所述
we probably wouldn’t even be bipedal.
我们甚至可能不会变成两足动物
Instead,we’d crawl around,
相反 我们将四处爬行
spreading our bodies to expose as much of our skin to the sun as possible,
好让我们身体的皮肤尽可能多地晒到太阳
in order to increase our brain function.
这样才能加速大脑的运作
Ture,nobody would ever go hungry because of our extremely low metabolisms.
确实 没人会感到饥饿 因为我们的新陈代谢速度极慢
But,we also probably wouldn’t care if anybody went hungry in the first place,
但是我们也不会先去关心是否有人挨饿了
because an ectothermic race of humans would essentially all be lazy, antisocial lizards.
因为冷血的人类物种肯定会变得和懒惰的无社会性的蜥蜴一样
And,that’s what would happen if humans were cold-blooded creatures.
以上就是假如人类是冷血动物会发生的事
What do you think?
你觉得会怎样呢?
Is there anything we missed?
我们有遗漏什么吗?
Let us know in the comments,
请在评论里告诉我们
check out these other clips from Unveiled,
你可以看看《揭秘未知》的其他视频
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假如人类变成冷血动物,将会发生什么

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