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马的存在如何影响了整个世界

What if Horses Never Existed?

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假如马从未存在
Humans are the most intelligent species on earth.
人类是地球上智力最高的物种
We have large brains and a complex social structure.
虽然我们拥有巨大的脑容量和复杂的社会结构
But there’s only so much we can do with the cards
但是人类在发展初期
we were given at the start of a game.
能做的事情毕竟有限
Historically, our cities, societies and way of life
在历史上 我们的城市 社会 生活方式
were entirety dependent on well, our spawn point.
完全依赖于我们的出生地
And people had to make do with the geography and resources at their disposal.
人们不得不设法利用手头的地理条件和资源
But geography wasn’t the only factor historically.
但从历史上看 地理条件并非唯一因素
In the old world, there was one thing all people had at their disposal,
在古老的世界 有一样各地的人们皆可支配的东西
那就是容易驯化的动物
It’s almost miraculous that small herbivores like goats, pigs and sheep
山羊 猪和绵羊等小型食草动物
even exist at all.
的存在简直是个奇迹
And cows, while big, are easy to control due to their herd mentality.
还有奶牛 虽然体型大 但由于其从众习性却易于控制
With all these animals evolving in the old world,
过去的世界有了这些不断进化的动物
it allowed for humans to easily settle in the cities,
使得人类很容易在城市安家
butchering their new farm animals for meat
人们屠宰新驯养的家畜获得肉
and receiving nutrients that crops like grain or rice couldn’t supply.
以此获取谷物或稻米等农作物无法提供的营养
It’s almost like these animals were made to be used by humans.
仿佛这些动物生来就是为了供人类使用
And that’s why many cultures inserted those beliefs into their mythologies.
许多文化将这些信仰加入了他们的神话 原因即在此
But there was always one animal that was special, in a way.
但在某种程度上 一直有一种动物与众不同
It was too important and resourceful to simply slaughter for meat.
它特别重要而且有用 以致于不能简单杀了吃肉
It was different than the goats or cows. The horse!
它的作用不同于山羊或是奶牛 它就是马!
People in Central Asia, a land of endless grasslands,
生活在拥有辽阔草原的中亚地区的人们
recognized that horses were more useful alive than as food.
认识到马活着的使用价值远高于食用价值
And they went through great lengths to tame these animals
他们花了很长时间驯化马
and even, eventually, to ride them.
最终甚至可以骑在马身上
Horses are, in my opinion,
在我看来
the most important animal in human history, simply by them existing.
仅凭存在 马都是人类历史上最重要的动物
Horse travel opened up a new world of potential.
骑马旅行开启了一个充满无限可能的新世界
They allowed for people to cover distances
它们让人们能够征服远途
that would have taken days or months on foot,
完成靠步行要花数天或是数月的路程
affecting everything from trade to communication and war and the process.
影响到从贸易到交流 战争以及历史进程等在内的一切
and made that vast continent of Eurasia far smaller than the process.
并且使得广阔的欧亚大陆小了很多
So, what if they all turn timeline?
所以 如果马不存在的话
The horse simply didn’t exist.
时间轴会面目全非吗?
What if there was never such an animal
如果从来没有这种动物
for armies to ride on or for traders to travel on?
供军队骑行或者商人旅行?
I know this entire concept seems weird and far-fetched.
我知道整个想法好像脑洞大开 不着边际
But strange enough, it easily could have happened.
但很奇怪 它本该很容易发生
When I say if horses never existed,
当我说到如果马从未存在过
I mean if they didn’t exist by the time that humans began creating settlements.
我的意思是 如果人类开始开辟定居地的时候 马不存在
Horses evolved in North America, not in Asia.
马不是在亚洲进化的 而是在北美洲
They grew into what we would call a modern horse on the Great Plains,
它们在大平原进化成了现代马
and we’re so successful they roamed throughout the continent,
我们成功地让马驰骋在大陆
some even going in the South America.
有一些甚至来到了南美洲
This all changed with the Ice Age.
随着冰河世纪到来 一切全都改变了
When the glaciers covered a majority of the continent,
当冰川覆盖了大部分大陆
limiting the range that horses could travel
限制了马的活动范围
and limiting the food supply and their numbers.
也限制了它们的食物供给和生存数量
However, there were paths in the glaciers that could be traveled.
然而 冰川上仍有可以走的路
These paths were how ancient hunter-gathers made their way
这些路是从亚洲南下
from Asia down south into North America.
到北美洲的古代狩猎采集者开辟的
Some horses and even camelids migrated north in return.
而有一些马甚至还有骆驼则北上返回到北美洲
Camels are from the America as well,
骆驼也来自美洲
which is why we have Llamas and alpacas. Fun fact.
这就是为什么我们有美洲驼和羊驼了 真是个有趣的现象
However, unlike the Llamas,
然而 不像美洲驼
the Ice Age was the death for North America horses.
对北美洲的马来说 冰河时代就是它们的死期
They were small in number already, trapped in packets in the glacier.
它们在数量上本已经很少 又在冰川上被成批的困住
By the time that humans came, they were simply hunted for food.
人类一来 就仅仅猎马为食
Horses wouldn’t return to the Americans until 12,000 years later,
直到12000年以后
when the horses brought over the descendants of those who escaped.
当年那些流亡马的后代才重返美洲
That’s actually why horses seem to take so quickly to North America.
实际上 这就是马快速回归北美洲的原因
And those that did escape thousands of years ago
这些马确实是几千年前逃离的
simply migrated to an environment that was much like North America,
仅仅迁移到了和北美洲环境差不多的
the plains of Asia and the forests of Europe.
亚洲的平原和欧洲的森林
And those alternate timeline that horses do not migrate up north.
这就改变了马没有北上到北美洲的时间轴
Instead, they simply wither and are hunted to extinction.
然而 它们确实在衰落 被猎捕得将近灭绝
Perhaps their bones eventually discovered
最终 它们的尸骨也许会被发现
and seen as some strange lost lineage of mammal,
看上去像一些陌生的已消失的哺乳动物
like we see the woolly mammoths or giant sloth today.
就像我们今天所见的长毛象或者巨型树懒
Humans of the modern times never would actually know what a horse looks like.
实际上 现代的人类将永远不会知道一匹马的样子
The average person wouldn’t own a horse in ancient or even medieval times.
在古代甚至中世纪 普通人不会有马
So this doesn’t change so much.
所以这样并没有改变很多
But it certainly changes the communication time between kingdoms.
但是 它确实改变了王国之间的通信
Diplomacy and war are far slower in many places around the world.
在世界上许多地方 外交和战争还相当慢
This wasn’t universal throughout the world.
这在全世界还不普遍
Some regions which relied less on the horse
在一些不太依赖马的地区
like the Frozen Arctic or the Desert of the Sahara,
比如寒冷的北极或者撒哈拉沙漠
would see little change at all.
根本看不到变化
Assuming camels still existed,
假设骆驼依旧存在
they’d be useful as long-haul transport animals
它们会被当做长途运输货物的动物
Ox could still pull cars, just at a slower rate.
公牛仍旧可以以很慢的速度拉车
But the horse filled a specific niche,
但是马填补了一个特殊的空白
a fast mobile animal for most importantly, warfare.
一个能快速移动的动物在战争中最为重要
Even as early as the Bronze Age cultures,
即使早在青铜时代的文明
horses had been domesticated by Mesopotamians, Hittites and Egyptians.
美索不达米亚人 希泰人和埃及人就已驯养了马
The chariot was the tank of its day and it dominated the battles’ field.
二轮战车主宰了战场 相当于当时的坦克
Eventually, when horseback riding became the norm,
最终 骑马成为战争标配
the Calvary was the decisive factor in battle.
骑兵成为战斗的决胜因素
It was the best for scouting or for raiding,
马背是侦查和突袭的绝佳位置
but most importantly, allowed for the influence of a kingdom
最重要的是 骑兵使得一个王国的影响力
to be felt far past its traditional boarders.
可以远远延伸到传统边界之外
Without the horse, ancient warfare is a slower and also more chaotic affair.
没有马 古代战争会更旷日持久 混乱不堪
Without the threat of Calvary,
没有骑兵的威胁
entire military tactics and weapons never are developed
整个军事策略和武器装备永远不会升级
since there is no need to accommodate for that threat.
因为无需应对这样的威胁
I’m not gonna go into how every single war would have been changed without the use of horses.
我不是要探究每一场战争如果没有使用马会如何改变
But I think this one is a good example.
但是我认为有一个很好的例子
The Macedonians turned the Greek world on its head
马其顿颠覆希腊
by using Calvary as a fundamental chord to their military strategy,
就是使用骑兵作为其军事策略的重要一环
using the horses to flank and catch the enemies from behind.
利用马从侧翼和后方击溃敌人
This was called the hammer and anvil strategy.
这叫做锤砧战术
The anvil was the solid infantry and the Calvary was the hammer.
步兵作砧 骑兵为锤
Without such a remarkable tactic like this,
没有这一绝佳战术
I doubt Alexander’s empire would have reached the heights that it did in his lifetime.
亚历山大不可能在其有生之年让帝国走向巅峰
This goes for many vast empires who relied on Calvary.
许多依靠骑兵的大帝国也是如此
In this alternate world, the very foundation of livelihoods for nomadic people
在这个改变了的世界 蒙古人 土耳其人和斯基芬人
like the Mongols, Turks or Skiffins never arises.
这些游牧民族的生活基础不会提升
The grasslands and steppes they felt like home on is
他们感觉像家的大草原
now basically their death sentence as a successful culture.
现在其实是对这一辉煌文明的死亡宣判
The distance from Mongolia to Kazakhstan is short, relatively on a horse.
蒙古到哈萨克斯坦的距离骑马去很近
But for a human, now that is a journey.
但对人来说 现在就是一场远途了
People in the center of the continent would be in a position where
对于处在大陆中心的人们来说
there’re thousands of miles away from not just a main civilization to raid or trade with,
数千英里的距离不仅阻隔了他们与大国的战争与贸易
but also each other.
还阻隔了彼此
It’s far harder to unify a band of tribes together if they live so far apart.
如果他们住得太远 很难集结部落
They’re now trapped in a vast sea without a boat,
他们如同被困在汪洋大海中 还没有船
and this transforms a lot of early civilizations.
这就改变了许多早期文明
The Middle East had a history, in the Bronze Age, of nomadic raiders
在青铜时代 中东地区有一群游牧突袭者
conquering the already-settled cities, then settling themselves in,
征服了本已稳定的城市 然后自己定居下来
transforming the region in the process.
改变了这一地区的命运
These raids were really the only thing that
这些突袭是唯一一件
made horse riders relevant and terrifying to the rest of the world.
使骑马者与外部世界联系并令人生畏的事
But without horses, they’re simply faraway tribal people who have less people for an army.
但是没有马 他们就只是人数很少 组不起军队的边远地方的部落
Horses allowed for smaller nomads
马使得这些无法与大国文明抗衡的
who shouldn’t have been able to win against the large civilization to control the battle field.
小型游牧部落在战场上占据主动
So, that means in an alternate timeline,
所以 这意味着 在一个可变动的时间轴上
there is no Mongolian Empire, no Seljuk Turk invasions,
没有蒙古帝国 没有塞尔柱的入侵
no constant destruction of the Middle East Empire’s from the steppe people,
没有草原人民对中东帝国的持续破坏
and no Han invasions.
以及汉族入侵
There isn’t much that can be discussed about this, however,
但是 对此没有太多好讨论的
because even the empires affected would be changed without horses.
因为没有马 即使是受影响的帝国也会被改变
The entire global map would have transformed in the ancient world.
古代世界的全球版图也会改写
The connections of the Silk Road or the close-knit nature of the Roman Empire
丝绸之路各国或者罗马帝国内部紧密的联系
becomes almost impossible to constantly upkeep
变得几乎不可能时常维护
since communication is only as fast as a man can run.
因为交流的速度仅等同于信使的跑速
So the horse was pretty important. You could say.
因此你可以说 马非常重要
And historically, if there is one thing all cultures agreed on,
在过去 如果所有文化有一个共识
it was that the horse was something bigger than just an animal.
那就是马不仅仅是一个动物
For the nomads of Central Asia, the horse was their world.
对于中亚的游牧民族 马就是他们的世界
For the Europeans, a horse was a noble companion at war.
对欧洲人来说 马在战争中是宝贵的朋友
The Chinese discovered the Greeks had powerful, or in their words “heavenly horses”,
中国人发现希腊有种很厉害的马 他们称之为“天马”
and wanted them so much they fought a war against them for animals.
他们特别想拥有 还为此和希腊开战
Yes, that is a real thing. Look it up!
是的 这是真事 去查查!
The horse, for all of human history, has always been universally respected.
在整个人类历史上 马一直受到普遍尊重
It’s an amount of respect that no other animal has really ever gotten.
这是其他动物从未享有的殊荣
The horses were seen as partners on the battle field.
马被视为战场上的搭档
You relied on your horse to survive.
生存之本
And that’s because humans domesticating horses unlocked new potential for civilizations.
人类因为驯化马而使文明焕发生机
Horses bore the hard work that humans even with their brains couldn’t do by themselves
马承担了人类用大脑也无法自己解决的沉重劳动
until the invention of cars and tanks which made them relics in a modern war.
直到汽车和坦克的发明 使其在现代战争中成为了过去时
That’s why the horse population has only shrunk in the last century.
这就是为什么上个世纪马的数量骤减
We shouldn’t forget just how much this one single animal existing
我们不应忘记 曾有这样一种动物 存在于
in the right place, at the right time.
正确的地点 正确的时间
An animal that was actually from the wrong continent and almost went the way of the mammoths
它从错误的大陆赶来 几乎重蹈猛犸象的覆辙
changed the course of mankind.
改变了人类文明的进程
I don’t think we will.
我认为我们不会忘记它们
Because even thought these animals haven’t been useful outside of ranching for a century,
虽然这些动物一个世纪以来 除了放牧没有其他用处
they’re still fundamentally tied to even new cultures more than any domesticated animal.
它们和新文化的联系仍较其它驯化动物更为紧密
Americans still have a fascination with horses.
美洲人对马仍然十分喜爱
Because just like the first horse riders in Asia,
因为就像亚洲第一代骑马者
this animal made a vast continent just a little bit smaller.
这种动物使得广阔的大陆变小了
And for the natives that fought against it, they saddled up their own horses.
对于那些抵抗侵略的当地人来说 他们也有自己的马
In both sides, riding their companions, fought each other on the plains of the west,
交战双方在西部的平原上骑马厮杀
where the history of the horse first began.
这里正是马的历史开启的地方
This video was sponsored by NordVPN.
本视频由NordVPN赞助
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VPN是虚拟私人网络
Basically, what NordVPN does is secure your information through it whenever you go online.
一般来说 我们做的是保护你上网时的信息安全
By accessing a private network with military-grade encryption,
通过连接一个军事级别加密的私人网络
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我们在六十个国家有数千服务器
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在苹果或安卓手机 微软或苹果电脑均可运行
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一个月后当你看到Althist 请登录我们的网站
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这就是NordVPN.com/althist
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付款时设置althist为密码 今天就开始
This is Cody of Alternate History Hub.
我是科迪 这里是《流动历史》栏目

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视频概述

如果没有马,世界将会怎样?本视频大开脑洞,假设马不存在,展开了天马行空的想象。带你重温马的历史、回味马对人类文明的重要意义。

听录译者

红宝石

翻译译者

YXG136******89

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFF3nRKoLWg

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