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如果恐龙没有灭绝会怎么样? – 译学馆
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如果恐龙没有灭绝会怎么样?

What If Dinosaurs Were Still Alive Today?

闪光点
( Bright Side )
试想一下 如果恐龙没有灭绝会怎么样
So consider this,what if the dinosaurs had never gone extinct.
那么《摩登原始人》的情节可能会成为现实
Well then the Flintstones will be a reality show then huh.
好吧 大约6600年前
All right, about 66 million years ago,
一颗像珠穆朗玛峰那么大的行星
an asteroid the size of Mount Everest
以每小时4.5万英里的速度
traveling at 45,000 miles per hour
击中了现位于墨西哥的尤卡坦半岛
hit what is now the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
这冲击引起了一连串灾难性的事件
The impact started a catastrophic chain of events
导致主宰了地球1600万年
that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs
的生物——恐龙的灭绝
which had dominanted the planet for 160 million years.
也毁了刚果地区“游客”的假期
It also pretty much ruin vacation for the tourist in Congo.
所以如果不是因为这颗行星
So, if it hadn’t been for this asteroid
扫除了竞争对手恐龙
wiping out the competition,
哺乳动物可能没有机会崛起进化
mammals probably wouldn’t have had a chance to rise and evolve.
也就是没法进化成人 我们人类啊
Hey, that means us humans! Uh-oh!
所以又回到这个问题
So, that begs the question.
如果那个行星没有砸中地球
What if that asteroid had missed?
如果恐龙还活着 现在地球会是什么样
What would the earth look like today if dinosaurs were still alive.
在我们探索这个充满恐龙的世界之前
Well, before we take a look at this dinosaur filled world,
请先保证你订阅了我们的频道 并且打开通知
make sure you subscribed our chanel and turn on post notifications.
确保总能第一个
So that you will always be the first
看到我们每天更新个节目
to see our daily updates.
我要澄清一下
Now just to be clear,
我向你们展示的不是侏罗纪公园的情节
this isn’t the Jurassic Park scenario i’m throwing at you.
因为在电影里恐龙是被重新复活
The dinosaurs in those movies have been brought back to life,
并入侵21世纪的
and thrusted into the 21 centry.
我们想要谈论的是恐龙
Well as here, we are talking about dinosaurs
一开始就没有灭绝的情况
never having died out in the first place.
好了既然前提已经说清楚了
All right, with that disclaimer out of the way,
我们一起看看吧
lets take a look.
首先 我们得了解背景情况
First informals, we need to lay down some background information.
恐龙生活在三叠纪末期以及侏罗纪和白垩纪时期
Dinosaurs existed in the late Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous periods
也就是1.8亿年前的中生代
during the Mesozoic Era which encompassed 180 million years.
这当然正好发生在
That of cause happened
莫札特和贝多芬的古典时期之前
right befor the classical period with Mozart and Beethoven.
好吧开玩笑的
Well, not really.
那个时期的地球气候非常温暖
Earth at that time had very warm climate
季节性变化不剧烈 没有极冰
with mild seasonal changes and no polar ice.
超大洲—盘古大陆
The supercontinent – Pangea
正开始要分裂为更小的大陆板块
had only just started to break down into smaller landmasses
几百万年以后这些板块会变成
that would millions of years later
我们今天熟知的七大洲
become the seven continents we know today.
据估计 在中生代大约有
Its estimated that there were nearly
2500个恐龙物种
2500 dinosaur species in the Mesozoic Era.
拥有不同的形态和大小
They came in all shapes and sizes.
一些草食类恐龙甚至长达110英尺
Some herbivorous grew to be nearly 110 feet long,
重达100吨
weighted 100 tons and need to eat
一天需要吃300英镑食物
about 300 pounds of food a day.
这么多的不同物种栖息在地球各地
These numerous spicies lived all across the globe.
击中地球的小行星
And the asteroid that destroyed their world
对不同栖息地的恐龙有不同的影响
affected them all in different ways depending on where they were.
这个著名的小行星其实就是巨大的宇宙岩石
This infamous asteroid basically an enormous space rock
在和地球大气层重力摩擦的过程中
became a fire ball
它变成了一个火球
when confronted with frictioning gravity and the earth atmosphere.
以1亿兆吨的力量与地球相撞
And it claded with a force of 100 million megatons.
撞击导致残骸冲上天
The impact blast debris into the air
速度高达每小时十万英里
at 100,000 miles per our.
导致80立方英里的地壳爆炸脱离地面
Exploded 80 cubic miles of the earthcrust from the ground
并且触发了剧烈的 11.1级的地震
and triggered a massive 11.1 earthquake
地震荡起的地震波
that rippled out in seismic waves
一直从尤卡坦半岛传递到了太平洋西北部
from the Yucatán Peninsula to the Pacific northwest.
天啊 想象一下这冲击力
Wow, talk about packing a punch.
如果这还不够震撼
And if that weren’t enough,
空气温度骤升至惊人的600华氏度
the air temperature skyrocketed to a wapping 600° fahrenheit.
这温度足以使周围大风刮起的水分
That’s hot enough to suck the moisture
瞬间升华 消失
right out of all the surrounding vegetation
并且将水煮沸 炙烤
and even boiled the water in the skin of dinosaurs
离撞击区域最近的恐龙
closest to the blast zone.
大风刮起来强的足以撕裂一切
Winds strong enough to rip through flash
将30吨的动物像把玩玩具一样掷起
and toss 30 ton animals around like dolls
扔到空中 波浪中
casted through the air and waves.
忘了说 这一切都只发生在5分钟
Oh, and all of this happened in just five minutes.
除此之外 还有吗 当然
Next, oh there is more? Yep!
撞击产生的700亿吨尘土和灰烬
70 billion tons of dust and ash from the collision
填满了大气层的上部
filled the upper atmosphere
以惊人的10,000英里每小时速度移动
moving at an astounding 10,000 miles per hour.
这些云层从墨西哥的蒙特雷
This cloud spread from Monterrey in Mexico
扩散覆盖世界的其他地方
to cover the rest of the world
包围保存着云层下不消散的热气
trapping an unrelenting heat beneath it.
静电引起了电暴风
Static electricity charged up an electrical storm
导致火雹从天而降 击打在那些
that caused fiery hail to rain down on the animals
影响较小的地区 还未被消灭的动物身上
that didn’t get wiped out in ground zero.
随着气温不断上升
As the temperatures continue to rise,
熊熊大火开始形成了火风
wild fires powerful enough to generate their own winds
以每小时九英里的速度烧过沼泽地和森林
blaze to one slash belly in forests at 9 miles per hour
这些火以1800华氏度燃烧
burning at 1800° fahrenheit.
如你所知
Just so you know,
这温度热的足以融化固体铝
that’s hot enough to melt solid aluminum.
一些西半球的小物种
Smaller species living in the western hemisphere
因生活在地底下 从高温中存活了下来
were able to survive the heat underground.
但是较大的生物
But the big guys
如三角恐龙和霸王龙被活活烤熟
like the Triceratops and T-rex were baked alive.
距离那8000英里外的地方 也就是现在的蒙古国
8,000 miles away in modern day Mongolia
一场超大尘暴使得所有在地面上的动物缺氧而死
a dust super storm suffocated any animals out in the open.
刚才我们提到的把整个地球包裹起来的云层
That world encompassing cloud we mentioned earlier,
让温度一直高升不降
kept temperatures too high
因此植物无法存活 也无法供所剩无几的食草动物进食
to sustain plants for the fewer remaining herbivorous to eat.
一连串的海啸使波浪上升到300英尺高
A series of tsunamis with waves towering at 300 feet high,
吞噬了几乎1.3万英里的海岸线
ravaged nearly 13,000 miles of coast.
地震导致的巨浪持续了数月
Shock waves from the massive earthquake continue for months,
就像撕一张纸一样的剥离地壳板块
ripping tectonic plates apart like pieces of paper.
被融化的岩石涌进
Molten rock forced its way
地球新形成的板块
through the newly formed fractures in the earth.
休眠火山被剧烈地唤醒
And dormant volcanoes were violently awoken
喷薄出更多的尘土废墟
with huge eruptions that expelled
涌入已经包裹整个地球的死气沉沉的云层
even more dust debris into the deadly cloud already surrounding the globe.
现在这云层已经有几英里厚了
This cloud had now gotten to be a few miles thick.
太阳辐射无法穿透它而进到地球表面
Preventing the sun’s rays from reaching the surface.
进入到地球表面的
What did surface though,
是各种有毒气体
with a number of toxic gases
包括氢气和硫
including hydrogen and sulfide
他们使在这个时候
which paralyzed the lungs
仅存的一点恐龙因肺部麻痹窒息而死
and suffocated the few dinosaurs left at this point.
任何经历过所有这些灾难的恐龙
Any remaining dinosaurs that managed to survive all of this
都由于生态系统被严重破坏
starve to death, from the way their ecosystem
而饿死了
had been so severely devastated.
由于上述原因在小行星撞击地球
Because of that, they all had completely died out
大约三月以后它们完全灭绝了
about three months after the asteroid collision.
和恐龙同时期的动物
Contemporaries of the dinosaurs
如昆虫 水生两栖动物和鸟类
like insects, early aquatic reptiles and birds,
较小的哺乳动物和鱼类
smaller mammals and fish
通过在树上挖洞 土里挖洞
managed to survive by burrowing themselves in trees,
在水下避难而度过了这次灾难
deep underground, or underwater.
简单的有机物如霉和真菌
Simpler organisms like mould and fungus
则在这一片满是尸体的土地上快速繁衍
thrived in the desolate landscape.
没有被完全破坏的蕨类植物在太阳光能够从
The indestructible fern made a come back once the sun’s energy
无所不在的尘土云中穿过之后 活了过来
was able to penetrate the omnipresent dust cloud.
经过几千年这些蕨类植物发展成为森林
Over thousands of years, these ferns grew into forests
基本上是它们给地球带来了新生命
which literally breathe new life into the planet.
它们生成氧气 为哺乳动物提供进食 呼吸的条件
They produced oxygen, and give mammals the conditions to eat,
这些生物进化成了我们今天能看到的一万多物种
breed and evolve into the 10,000 species we see today.
那么最后的大问题是
Now finally, the big question.
你已经点击底部的订阅按钮了吗?
Did you clicked this subscribed bottom already?
不对 不是这个问题
Wrong question. Here it is.
如果这一切都没有发生
What if all of that didn’t happen.
让我们来探索一下可能性
Let’s explore our options.
那个小行星可能还会继续它的旅途
The asteroid could’ve continued on its path
没有被地球的地心引力吸进来
without getting sucked in by the earth gravitational pull.
于是完全从地球边缘擦肩过去
Missing the planet completely.
让那些恐龙们可以
And letting the dinosaurs
在和平中度过余生
live out the rest of their natural lives in peace.
或者小行星可能撞击的是海洋而不是陆地
Or it could’ve crashed into the ocean instead of on land.
海水可能会更好地缓冲撞击的力量
The water would’ve absorbed the energy of the impact much better.
那么接下来会引起的一系列事件
So, the chain of events that followed
就没那么灾难性了
wouldn’t have been so devastating.
没有像大楼这么高的尘土块会飞到天上
No building size chunks of debris falling from the sky,
也就不会形成尘云维持高温 阻挡太阳光
no heat trapping and sun blocking dust cloud,
也不会发生火山喷发
and no volcanic eruptions.
但海啸有可能会更严重
The tsunamis most likely would’ve been worse,
吞噬海岸 导致死伤更多
flooding coasts and certainly racking up high death toll.
但可能就不会
But they probably wouldn’t have managed
将整个物种都灭绝
to wipe out the entire species.
随之而来的地震也不太可能
It’s unlikely that the resulting earthquake
达到11.1震级
would have been an 11.1 magnitude,
当然可能会足够强大引起巨大破坏
but it would’ve been powerful enough to do some major damage.
这些假设使得恐龙
These scenarios leave the possibility of the dinosaurs
存活下来继续进化成为可能
living and continuing to evolve.
如果这一切发生了 早期哺乳动物
Had this happened, it would’ve been virtually impossible
想要存活相当长的时间并最终达到今天的数量
for any of the early mammals to survive long enough
基本上是不可能的
to build to the numbers we have today.
在中生代大部分食肉哺乳动物只有啮齿动物大小
Most of them in the Mesozoic Era were just rodent size carnivores
基本上没有猫那么大
that hardly ever get to be the size of a cat.
尽管他们也属于捕食者
Despite being predators,
他们依然会被更大的肉食动物捕猎
they were still prey to larger carnivores.
即便是繁衍速度最快的种类
Not even their fast breeding would’ve been able to
也无法快到将该物种数量
increase their populations quickly enough
迅速提升以全面制霸地球
to make them a dominant class.
人类和相近的灵长类动物
Humans and related primates would
在各种情况下都不会存在
in all likelihood, not exist
如果没有那不请自来的小行星
or not for that ill-fated asteroid.
哇 我们太幸运了
Woo, lucky for us!
恐龙的后代 如鳄鱼
Not to mention the animals that descendant from dinosaurs
蜥蜴 蛇 乌龟和鸟类就更不用说了
like crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles and birds,
可能会看起来更像它们的祖先
would probably look much more like their ancestors
而不是像现在的样子
than they do currently.
在完全假想的情况下
In the purely hypothetical situation,
恐龙从来没有灭绝
where dinosaurs never went extinct.
他们大脑可能会继续
Their brains would’ve continued to
适应环境 和它们的身体一起进化
adapt and evolve along with their bodies.
大部分的恐龙物种
Most species of dinosaur,
大脑的大小和身体比起来都偏小
had a relatively small brain to body ratio.
即便是更大一点的恐龙
And even though the larger dinos
有比例更大一点的脑
had proportionally large brains,
依然没法完成任何复杂的行为
they still couldn’t complete any complex functions.
大多数旧石器时代研究者认为伤齿龙是最聪明的恐龙
Most paleontologist agree, that the Troodon was the smartest dinosaur.
它和人类的身形大小相当
It had a body about the size of a humans,
大脑有鳄梨核那么大
a brain the size of an avocadopid,
智力水平相当于现代鸟类
and an intelligence level on parallel with modern bird.
早在白垩纪末期 它已经
It was already using visual and auditory signals
在运用自己的视觉和听觉信号
in the late Cretaceous period.
所以我们可以试想一下如果它有几百万年的时间
So just imagine what it would’ve become
不断发展会变成什么样
if it were given millions of years to develop.
在今天 它可能都有一份在华尔街的工作了
It might today have a job on Wall Street.
一些科学家表示 在小行星撞击地球之前的几千年
Some scientist say that the dinosaurs numbers had already been steadily declining
恐龙的数量已经开始逐渐减少
for thousands of years befor the asteroid hit.
即便没有导致灭绝的大灾难
So, the may have died out on their own
它们也可能自己灭绝了
without a mass extinction event.
但要经历更长的时间
But this would’ve happened over a much longer period of time
而不是灾难性的撞击后几个月
than the few months following the catastrophic impact.
所以哺乳动物发展的时间线
So, there’s no telling how the timeline
会如何受到影响 不得而知
for the rise of mammals would’ve been affected.
可能一切还是会发生
It may still happened,
但许多的变量可能会走上错误的轨道
but a lot of could
举个例子 环境可能不适合早期的哺乳动物群体
For instance, the environment might not have suited early mammal populations,
它们可能没法快速的适应
and they might not have been able to adapt quickly enough.
大部分早期哺乳动物是食肉动物
Most early mammals were carnivores.
当时的昆虫数量
And the insect population at that time,
可能不足以维持它们生存
might not have been enough to sustain them.
哺乳动物也可能会面临和恐龙一样的绝境
The mammals could easily have had the same fate as the dinosaurs.
在几百万年后 出生率缓慢减少
with birth rates slowly decreasing over millions of years
直到生命又要从头开始发展
until life would have to start over again.
但生命总会发展起来
But life finds a way.
即便不是恐龙或者哺乳动物 某种生物
And something if not dinosaurs or mammals
也会存活下来
would’ve managed to survive,
当然 如果这一切都是真的 我们就永远不会知道了
of course will never know if any of this is true.
但是假想总是很好玩的
But its always fun to speculate.
你觉得恐龙在身边的话
So, what do you think the world be like
世界会变成什么样
if dinosaurs were around?
地球会变得更好吗
Would the planet be better off?
我们在开车上班的时候
Would we have to dodge large amount of dinosaur poop
是不是要避开各种恐龙粪便了
while driving to work?
Fred Flinstone 最后会正在在岩心下面养恐龙吗?
Would finally get arised down the
请在评论区说说你的看法
Tell us what you think in the comments below.
如果你从视频中学到什么有趣的东西请点赞
Give this video a like if you learn something cool from it.
并且分享给可能会喜欢的人
Shared with other people who would probably enjoy it too.
请记得密切关注我们节目
And always remember to stay on the bright side of life.

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视频概述

如果恐龙当初就没有灭绝,哺乳动物还能发展繁衍到今天的地步吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

陈榆木

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeFnH4xux7w

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