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假如暗物质并不存在 – 译学馆
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假如暗物质并不存在

What If Dark Matter Doesn’t Exist?

对很多科学家来说
Dark matter has been the goal to explanation
宇宙中的引力值之所以
for many scientists as to
比由可见物质测出的数值大
why there seems to be more gravitational influence in our universe
就是因为有暗物质存在
than the gravity measured by visible matter.
但倘若根本就没有暗物质呢?
But what if there’s no dark matter at all?
暗物质的概念是由
The idea of dark matter was first proposed
亨利·庞加莱在1906年首次提出的
by Henri Poincaré in 1906.
然后1933年弗里茨·兹威基研究星系团时
Then in 1933, evidence of dark matter was found
就发现了证明暗物质存在的证据
by Fritz Zwicky while studying galaxy clusters…
之后 在1978年
And then more evidence of dark matter
基于对星系自转速度的计算
was found based on the calculations of rotational velocities
薇拉·鲁宾发现了更多暗物质存在的证据
in galaxies made by Vera Rubinin 1978.
我们宇宙中只有不到5%的可见物质
Our universe is made up of less than 5 % of visible matter —
例如恒星 行星 星系
-like stars, planets, galaxies,
你我 等所有可见的东西
you, me, and everything we can see.
剩下那些看不见的
Everything else, is stuff we can’t see
我们就统称为暗物质
which we call dark matter.
科学家们认为暗物质占宇宙物质的95%
And scientists think 95 % of the matter in our universe is dark matter.
目前 暗物质被用来解释
Right now, Dark Matter is used to explain
天体物理学中让人费解的问题
a few pesky things in astrophysics.
像是 为什么星系团中的热气团不会爆开?
Like… Why hot gas in galaxy clusters don’t blow themselves apart.
星系自转为什么不会让星体四散飞离?
Why stars don’t get flung out into space because of galaxy rotation.
还有CMB的温度波动
And also, the temperature fluctuations of the CMB —
CMB全称是宇宙微波背景辐射
or cosmic microwave background radiation.
据说 可以尝试着解释所有这些问题的理论
That said, there are theories that are trying to explain all this without assuming
就是暗物质
It’s dark matter…
这些理论有 标度不变性
These are: scale invariance
和熵力假说
and emergent gravity.
真空空间标度不变理论说明
The empty space scale invariance theory
真空空间的性质
says that properties of empty space
在标度上应该是不变的
should not change based on scale.
一位天体物理学家回顾了
An astrophysicist looked back at
爱因斯坦早期的方程式
the early equations of Einstein,
和牛顿动力学
and Newtonian Dynamics,
并且修改了牛顿力学中的加速项
and modified an acceleration term in Newton’s law.
借由这个修改
With this change,
力学定律就能解释这个力了
the law could explain a new force.
这种力可以替代暗物质来解释之前的问题
This force can explain things that were explained by dark matter…
像是让高速自转的星系
such as holding a galaxy together
聚拢在一起
that’s spinning at high rotational velocities.
唯有一个问题
The only problem is,
在地球上 这种力
on Earth, this force can be up to
可能还不到重力的十亿分之一
a billion times smaller than the force of gravity–
这使得它很难被检测到
making it difficult to measure.
它解释不了引力透镜现象
It doesn ’ t explain gravitational lensing, —
即光线被扭曲
which is the bending of light —
或者CMB的温度波动
or the temperature fluctuations of the CMB.
最疯狂的 但对我而言又最有趣的是
The craziest, but to me the most interesting,
全息原理
is the holographic principle,
我们整个宇宙都可以看成一个虚拟的圆球
which says that our entire universe can be described on an imaginary sphere
包裹着普通物质
that surrounds ordinary matter.
这引出了熵力假说的理论
It lead to the theory of emergent gravity.
这一理论表示在已存物质中有
That is the idea that gravity arises
熵力增加
(or emerges)
或显现
through the presence of matter.
这表明它的产生与
It suggests that this happens the same way
物质微观粒子的运动方式是一样的
that temperature arises from the movement microscopic particles of matter.
因此 如果引力是这么形成的
So, if gravity is formed this way
那就又可以用它来诠释引力现象了
then it can be used to explain gravitational phenomena again!
因为冥冥之中有东西在维系着这种引力束缚
Because something is keeping galaxies gravitationally bound.
这个东西很可能就是
It’s possible that the force created
熵力假说中的引力
in the emergent gravity theory does this!
但它仍无法解释CMB温度波动的问题
But it still doesn’t explain the CMB temperatures…
科学家们仍在发展类似理论
Scientists are still developing theories, like these,
所以他们的解释是
so they can explain things like
我们的宇宙没有四散分开是因为有不可见的物质
the reason our universe hasn’t blown apartbecause of invisible matter.
他们认为这或许是因为有
And they think it might be because of a gravitational field
由宇宙中可见物质
that developed through the movement
运行所产生的引力场
of visible matter in our universe.
全都非常复杂而且繁复
It’s all very complicated, and yet, epic.
那时 对暗物质的争论仍远多于
For the moment, arguments for dark matter still stand tall
对其他这些理论的争论
above many of these other theories,
但是 这事儿以后可不一定哦
but hey, maybe not forever.
嗨 窥屏的伙伴 1秒订阅更多视频
Hey peeps, take a sec to subscribe for more videos.
查看有关新物质形式 excitonium
Plus check out Trace’s video
的微视频
about a new form of matter excitonium!
最后一个有趣的事实是
And one last fun fact:
全息原理表明
the holographic principle says
我们从来都是三维视角
we’ve always looked at life as 3 dimensions,
但若从二维来看
but if we looked at it as 2 dimensions
那可能宇宙只是我们自身的全息投影
then MAYBE the universe is just a holographic projection of ourselves.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching!

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视频概述

关于宇宙,人们有太多猜想,其中之一就是暗物质

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgmZaHHKK90

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