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海水变成淡水对世界的影响 – 译学馆
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海水变成淡水对世界的影响

What If All the Sea Water Becomes Fresh Water?

What if ALL SEA WATER BECAME FRESH WATER?
假如所有的海水都变成淡水会怎样
Where do you go to quench your thirst?
你会去哪里解渴呢?
The kitchen sink?
厨房的水槽?
The local bar?
当地的酒吧?
The mineral rich springs of Bergamo, Italy?
还是意大利贝加莫富含矿物质的温泉?
In the 21 century, you don’t have to go that far for fresh water.
在二十一世纪 你不用费尽周折寻找淡水
But still, supply is running out.
但是 淡水资源终将耗尽
What if we didn’t have to worry about water consumption?
如果我们不用担心水量的消耗会怎样
What if you could drink and shower as much as you wanted?
如果你想喝水就喝水 想洗澡就洗澡会如何呢
What if a trip to the well and a trip to the beach were one in the same?
如果去井边和去海边是一回事儿呢?
You might give a lot for those privileges.
你可能会为了享受这些特权而付出不少代价
But how much would it really cost?
但是需要付出多大的代价呢
This is What If and here’s what would happen,
以下就是即将发生的事情
if all sea water became fresh water.
如果所有的海水都变成淡水的话
The first big question we have to ask is
我们需要问的最重要的问题是
why is the ocean so salty to begin with?
为什么海水一开始就是咸的?
Well, it wasn’t always like that.
海水原本并不是咸的
About 3.8 billion years ago,
大概在三十八亿年前
Earth’s surface had finally cooled to the point that water vapour turned to liquid.
地球表面终于冷却到水蒸气变成液体的程度
No salt added.
这时水中不含盐分
That’s right, a really really long time ago the oceans were fresh water.
没错 很久很久以前 海水都是淡水
But that wasn’t going to last.
但并没有持续多久
Whenever it rains, carbon dioxide from the air dissolves into the falling water.
每当下雨 空气中的二氧化碳会溶解到雨水中
This makes the rain slightly acidic.
这使得雨水略带酸性
And when it falls, it causes rocks to erode.
当它落下时 会导致岩石侵蚀
From there, rain water slides towards nearby rivers and streams,
然后 雨水向附近的河流和小溪流动
taking loose salt and minerals along with it.
带走松散的盐和矿物质
From there, this runoff flows from rivers into the ocean.
然后 这些径流顺着河流流入海洋
Add to that any additional salt and minerals
再加上从海底的热泉或火山排出的
that would be expelled from hydrothermal vents or submarine volcanoes.
许多额外的盐和矿物
And then consider that this whole process
要知道这整个过程
has been recurring more or less consistantly for 3.8 billion years.
已经连续进行了大约38亿年
That’s a lot salt.
那可是超多的盐啊
In fact, there’s so much salt in the ocean
事实上 海洋中的盐实在是太多了
that if you spread it evenly across all the land on earth,
如果你把地球上的所有土地都均匀地铺上从海里来的盐
it would amount to one towering layer of salt that’s 40 stories tall.
会形成相当于40层楼高的盐层
97% of all the water on earth is saline.
地球上97%的水是盐水
And we’ve got to assume it’s for a reason.
我们推测这一定是有原因的
So what would our world look like if we took the salt out of the sea?
如果我们把盐从海水中提取出来 世界会变成什么样子呢?
Fresh water oceans sure do sound like a godsend.
“淡水海洋”听起来确实像天赐之物
Right now it’s predicted that 1/3 of the world will be facing chronic water shortages by 2025.
据预测 到2025年世界上三分之一的人口将面临长期的水资源短缺
And our current rate of consumption, the global demand for fresh water doubles every 20 years.
以我们目前的消耗速度 全球对淡水的需求每20年翻一番
So maybe freshwater oceans would actually yield a good outcome this time.
所以淡水海洋在这个时候可能会是个好的结果
Nope.

A sea without salt would decimate marine life
没有盐的海洋会毁灭海洋生物
and dramatically affect our weather and temperatures,
并显著影响我们的天气和温度
making human life on earth very difficult, if not impossible.
使地球上的人类生活变得非常困难 甚至无法生存
There are roughly 228,450 species in the ocean,
海洋中大约有228450种生物
and as many as two million more to be discovered.
还有200多万种有待发现
But if the ocean were to become desalinated,
但如果海水被淡化
we’d never find them.
我们将永远也找不到它们
Saltwater fish and other ocean creatures
海洋鱼类和其它海洋生物
evolved to be able to drink salt water to stay hydrated,
进化到能靠喝盐水来保持水分
and get rid of excess salt.
并排出身体中多余的盐分
Not all sea creatures do this the same way but
虽然并不是所有生物都以相同的方式(生活)
being able to pump out excess salt is crucial to survive in the ocean.
但能排出盐分对于在海洋中生存仍然至关重要
Some species, like salmon, have adapted to tolerate freshwater and saltwater.
一些物种 比如鲑鱼已进化到能同时耐受海水和淡水
But for the most part, all saltwater species would perish.
但在大多数情况下 所有的盐水物种都会灭亡
This includes underwater algae which, believe it or not,
包括水下藻类 信不信由你
accounts for half the photosynthesis that occurs on earth.
水下藻类(进行的光合作用)占了地球光合作用的一半
Photosynthesis plays a vital role in supplying our planet with oxygen.
而光合作用在为地球供氧方面起着重要的作用
Since trees and plants convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the air we breathe,
由于树木和植物将大气中的二氧化碳转化为氧气
so without algae, not only do we get less oxygen,
如果没有藻类 氧气将会减少
we also have a lot more carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.
大气中的二氧化碳将会增多
This intensification of the greenhouse effect
温室效应的加剧
would make some parts of the world unbearably hot.
会使一些地方热得让人无法忍受
You definitely notice this intense heat near the equator.
你肯定注意到赤道附近热的无法忍受的地方
Since our ocean currents wouldn’t be circulating warm water and air the way they used to,
由于没有温暖的水和空气 洋流不能像之前那样流动
convection currents help warm water from the equator get farther north,
对流有助于赤道的温水向赤道的最北方
while colder water from the north is able to cool hotter areas down south.
北方较冷的水能使南方较热的地区降温
At the equator, warmer water can carry more salt,
在赤道 温水可以携带更多的盐
so this denser water sinks lower,
所以这些密度更大的水下沉得更快
while cooler water flows over top of it.
较冷的水从它上面流过
And in the far north, the water gets cold enough to freeze and form sea ice.
而在遥远的北方 海水因温度足够低而结冰并形成海冰
Salt gets left behind as the water freezes.
水结成冰时析出了盐
And naturally, this makes colder water up north denser,
自然 这使得北边较冷的水密度更大
allowing it to sink to the bottom to make room for the incoming warmer water
它沉入下面 为从南面从上往下流的暖水
that’s worked its way up from the south.
腾出空间
But without salt, the whole process breaks down.
如果没有盐 整个流程就会中断
Earth’s extremities would freeze
地球的两极会被冻结
while weather around the equator would intensify.
而赤道周围的天气将更加恶劣
For one thing, hurricanes will be a lot more frequent
首先 飓风将更加频繁
and a lot more deadly.
更加致命
At this point, our weather and our climate
在这一点上 我们的天气和气候
will be totally different from how we know it now.
将完全不同于我们现在对它的了解
How long would we survive to see all these changes?
我们在这些变化下能存活多久
Not long at all.
没有多久
You’d either freeze, over heat,
你要么冻死 要么热死
die in a natural disaster, or starve to death.
要么在自然灾害中死去 要么死在饥饿中
Yeah, with significantly less photosynthesis
是的 光合作用明显减少
and climates that are either extremely cold or extremely hot,
气候变得极冷或者极热
our weather would no longer support the diverse plant life that has now.
我们的天气将不再为植物多样性提供保障
The entire food chain would collapse.
整个食物链都会崩溃
Most species will die off including humans,
包括人类在内的大多数物种都会灭绝
since crops we rely on for sustenance would all disappear.
因为我们赖以维持生计的作物都会消失
So, when we say ocean salinization is important,
所以 我们说海洋的盐水化是重要的
don’t take it with a grain of salt.
别不把它当回事儿
Of course we respect the scientific method.
当然 我们尊重科学的方法
So keep questioning the world and its properties on land and beyond.
因此 我们继续质疑世界及其在陆地内外的属性
And come back soon for another What If.
并为即将出现的假设提出自己的想法

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视频概述

海洋对于世界上所有的生物都必不可少,没有海水会让所有生物都陷入灾难中

听录译者

果松松

翻译译者

summer

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEo81a2w07Q

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