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当你停止吸烟时会发生什么? – 译学馆
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当你停止吸烟时会发生什么?

What Happens When You Stop Smoking?

每点燃一支烟 就会释放超过7000种化学物质
With over seven thousand chemicals released each time you light a cigarette,
所以吸烟是全球可预防性死亡的主要原因之一也就不奇怪了
it’s no surprise that smoking is one ofthe leading causes of preventable death worldwide.
但是世界上仍有13亿人经常吸烟
But with 1.3 billion people actively smoking,
那么当你停止吸烟以后会发生什么?
what actually happens when you stop smoking?
在停止吸烟最初的20分钟内你的血压和心率会下降到正常水平
Within the first 20 minutes of quitting, your blood pressure and heart rate will return to normal.
这是因为烟草中的尼古丁会释放肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素
This is because the nicotine in cigarettes released epinephrine and norepinephrine,
这两种物质会导致心率过快 血管变细
which increase your heart rate and narrowed blood vessels.
也会导致吸烟者感到四肢发冷
These facts also cause smokers extremities to feel colder,
但现在 你的手脚已经回复到正常的体温了
but by now your hands and feet have returned to their normal temperature.
2小时过后 你对尼古丁的渴望会造成闷闷不乐、困倦、 紧张等感受
2 hours in, and the nicotine cravings begin causing moodiness, drowsiness, tense feelings,
甚至难以入眠
and even difficulties sleeping,
因为尼古丁也会释放过量的多巴胺
because nicotine also releases more dopamine than normal.
这是身体对于多巴胺下降和释放的预期生理反应
These are expected physiological responses to the decrease and its release.
停止吸烟8小时后 体内吸入的一氧化碳被清除
8 hours after quitting, an inhaled carbon monoxide clears,
这使得血流中的氧含量恢复正常
allowing oxygen levels in the blood stream to return to normal.
一氧化碳与氧气在你的血液中竞争结合血红蛋白
Carbon monoxide and oxygen compete to bite hemoglobin in your blood,
这给血液循环系统带来了压力
which stresses the circulatory system.
所以一氧化碳清除后 就给氧气腾出了更多空间
So as it clears, there is more room for oxygen.
然而 对于长期吸烟者来说
However, for the longterm smokers,
长期接触一氧化碳 会使红细胞体积增大
this carbon monoxide exposure causes red blood cells to increase in size,
导致血液增稠 血压增高
making the blood thicker, and causing higher blood pressure,
并且增加了患血栓的风险
and increases chances of developing blood clots.
出人意料的是 戒烟24小时之后咳嗽的次数会变多
Surprisingly, 24 hours after quitting,coughing will actually increase,
这是你的身体清除肺中所有毒素的一种方式
which is your body’s way clearing out all the toxins from the lungs.
此外 这时患上各种冠心病的几率会降低
Additionally, at this point, the risk of developing various coronary heart diseases decreases,
这一切都发生在24小时之内
all within 24 hours.
48小时以后 尼古丁及其代谢物已经从你的身体中完全清除了
After 48 hours, when nicotine and its metabolites are completely eliminated from your body,
被损坏的神经末梢开始重新生长
damaged nerve endings begin to regrow.
香烟中还有焦油和其它化学物质 随着血管中这些物质含量的减少 味蕾上的含量也在减少
The tar and other chemicals in cigarettes leave fewer taste buds that are fluttered with less blood vessels.
味蕾开始恢复对味觉的敏感度所以食物尝起来更美味了
They now begin to regain their sensitivity, making food taste better.
尽管长期吸烟者会经常对味蕾造成不可逆的损害
Although chronic smokers may often have irreversible damage to taste buds.
戒烟72小时时 尼古丁戒断高峰症状出现包括头痛 恶心 痉挛
At the 72-hour mark, nicotine withdrawal peaks with headache, nausea, and cramps,
以及情绪上的症状 比如焦虑和抑郁
as well as emotional symptoms like anxiety and depression.
大多数成瘾物质使用过后会出现这些症状包括咖啡因
These symptoms can be seen by most addictive substances including caffeine.
但这段时间过后 最糟糕的情况就正式结束了
But after this period, the worst is officially over.
一个月后 患Ⅱ型糖尿病
After one month, the risk of developing Type II diabetes,
癌症和心血管疾病的风险已经降低了
cancer and cardiovascular diseases has already decreased.
3至9个月后 肺部受损的纤毛几乎完全被修复了
In 3-9 months, the damaged cilia in the lungs are almost fully repaired,
纤毛是帮助清除肺部灰尘和碎片的类毛发结构
which are hair-like structures that helps sweep away dust and debris.
因而 像咳嗽和呼吸短促等症状几乎完全消失了
And as a result, symptoms such as coughing and shortness of breath are almost completely eliminated.
大概一年过后 患上动脉粥样硬化直接导致的心脏病的风险几乎降低了一半
And around one year, the risk of developing heart disease, as a direct result of atheroma formation,
而动脉粥样硬化是动脉管壁不断恶化
which are deposited fat material or scar tissues from deteriorating arterial walls,
而沉积的脂肪物质和疤痕组织
decreases by almost one half.
10年后 患肺癌的风险下降到
In 10 years, the chance of developing lung cancer decreases to
不戒烟的人们的一半
half of someone who did not quit smoking.
15年后 心脏病发作的风险下降到
And in 15 years’ time, the risk of heart attack decreases to
与那些终生未吸烟的人同样的水平
the same as someone who has never smoked in their entire life.
当然了 这份指南并不是绝对的
Of course, this guideline is not definitive,
你每天或每年的平均吸烟量会影响你的身体恢复情况
and the average amount you smoke per day or year will play a role in how well your body recovers.
不幸的是 吸烟总是会对肺部造成一些不可逆的损伤
Unfortunately, there will always be some irreversible damage to the lungs,
并且增大对各种肺部疾病的易感性
and increasing susceptibility to developing various lung diseases.
另外 尽管戒烟很难但它的好处远远大于你最初放弃的那点东西
And, while quitting may be difficult, the benefits greatly outweigh the initial withdrawal.
最后 防止这种情况发生最好的办法就是不要开始吸烟
Ultimately, the best way to prevent this from happening is to not begin smoking at all.
需要更多动力吗?看看我们的视频“亲爱的懒人们”吧
Need some extra motivation?Check out our video “Dear lazy people”,
也许能让你有动力戒掉你的坏习惯
which may give you the boost you need to kick your habit
或者专注于希望达成的其它目标
or focus on other goals you are hoping to accomplish.
有疑问的话请在社交媒体的评论区问我们
Ask us your burning questions in the comments on social media
记得订阅我们每周四发布的每周科学视频
and subscribe for our weekly science videos every Thursday.

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视频概述

介绍了吸烟者戒烟后几小时到几十年后身体发生的变化。

听录译者

Nam

翻译译者

二宝宝

审核员

审核员T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3I0mJ2RfU0

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