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当你被冻死的时候发生了什么

What Happens When You Freeze To Death?

我们没有拥有先祖那样的毛发
Humans don’t have fur like many of our ancestors,
但是我们的身体依旧有能力去适应寒冷
but our bodies still have the ability to adapt to cold weather.
然而 当这些机制失效时就会导致完全崩溃
However,when pushed these mechanisms can fail leading to an extreme breakdown.
所以 在你要被冻死的时候
So,what actually happens to your body
你的身体和大脑到底发生了什么
and brain when you freeze to death?
当身体核心温度降到了37℃以下的时候
Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature drops
低体温症就会出现
below 37 degrees Celsius,
当身体处于极度寒冷时
so in the event that the body is
在几分钟之间
exposed to extreme cold, within minutes
信号就从皮表传到了下丘脑
signals are sent from the skin to the hypothalamus
这个过程被称为”恒温机制”
producing what is known as the Thermoeffector Response.
首先 我们皮肤上的血管会收缩
First, the blood vessels in our skin narrow,
使身体通过降低表层的血液流动来保持核心温度
allowing the body to maintain its core temperature by reducing the blood flow
这被称为”血管收缩” 此外
on its surface, known as Vasoconstriction.Additionally,
位于全身的褐色脂肪组织会被激活
brown adipose tissue located throughout the body
它利用高浓度的葡萄糖和油脂来产热
also activates using high levels of glucose and lipids
这个过程叫做”非战栗产热”
to produce heat via a process called non-shivering thermogenesis
但是 如果机制都失效了
But, if all else fails
我们的身体就会将”战栗产热”作为最后防线
our body undergoes Shivering Thermogenesis as a last-ditch effort
通过骨骼肌的不断收缩 我们的身体
By constantly contracting our skeletal muscles,our body induces shivering
有目的的颤抖起来 去产生足够的热来避免低温症
in an attempt to produce enough heat to prevent hypothermia.
然而 如果你在30分钟之内一直处于寒冷之中
However,if you remain exposed to the cold within 30 minutes
而你的皮肤和其他组织慢慢开始僵硬
you could get frostbite which is
你也许会冻伤
when your skin and other tissues literally begin to freeze.
发展中的冰晶体通过毁坏细胞的细胞膜
Developing ice crystals endanger your cells
来造成细胞脱水 从而危及细胞
by damaging their cell membranes, causing Intracellular Dehydration,
因为水分从细胞中流失
due to water leaking out from them.
细胞开始死亡
The cells then begin to die
冰晶体继续扩展
and the ice crystals continue to expand,
毁坏相邻的细胞
damaging neighboring cells.
作为应对 身体通过血管舒张
In response, the body tries
来避免我们皮肤的冻伤
to prevent frostbite in our skin through Vasodilation,
这加快血液流动去温暖皮肤细胞
which allows increased blood flow to warm the skin cells.
然而
However,
它会遇到”恒温机制”
this runs counter to the Thermoeffector Response,
机制会再次运作 通过血管收缩来维持我们的核心温度
which again works to maintain our core temperature through Vasoconstriction.
作为结果
As a result,
我们的身体通过血管舒张和收缩的循环
our body goes through cycles of Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction,
我们的皮肤重复的经历着解冻和冻伤
thawing and freezing our skin over and over again
导致了更多的损害
and causing even more damage.
但是 在特别冷的温度下
But,our skin isn’t the only spot that will freeze
我们的皮肤并不是唯一会被冻伤的部位
under extreme cold temperatures.
如果你处于寒冷 多风的天气
If you’re in extreme cold, windy weather
你的角膜也会被冰冻
your corneas can freeze too,
覆盖在角膜上起保护作用的泪液层会变干
the protective layer of tears covering the cornea can dry,
使你的眼睛对光线敏感 造成眼皮痉挛
making your eyes sensitive to light and causing eyelid spasms.
辛运的是 如果你能马上脱离寒冷的话
Luckily,your corneas can thaw if you get yourself
你的角膜会解冻
out of the cold quickly,
但是 如果冰冻时间够长的话 会导致永久伤害
but if frozen long enough, you can cause permanent damage.
现在 身体组成 衣物
Now,several factors, including body composition
温度和环境这几个因素
clothing,temperature and the environment
决定你身体核心温度下降得有多快
determine how quickly your core body temperature drops.
举个例子 热量在水中会比在空气中散失的更快
For example, heat is lost much more quickly in water than in air.
在泰坦尼克号沉没后 那些陷入冰水的人
Those who were submerged in the icy waters after the sinking
也许只能支撑15分钟
of the Titanic may have lasted only 15 minutes,
这是因为在低体温症的后期
this is because during the advanced stage
你的器官开始衰竭
of hypothermia your organs begin to fail,
你的呼吸速率变慢 身体不协调了
your breathing rate slows, you lose coordination,
你心跳速率也开始减慢
your heart rate begins to slow down,
甚至你身体停止了颤动
and your body even stops shivering.
晚期低体温症的最后症状之一是发狂
One of the last symptoms of advanced stage hypothermia
对死于低体温症的案件调查中
is delirium, a survey of cases in which
有25%的案例被发现是
death was caused by hypothermia found that in
死于发狂的
25% of the cases,
受害者在死前是裸着的
the victims had undressed before they died.
在这类案例中 受害者们整齐的叠好衣服
In one case, victims had neatly folded their clothes
放在旁边 然后在冰雪中冻死
beside them and froze to death in the snow.
这是为什么呢?有个推测是
Why would this happen? One theory
由于太冷 大脑受损
is that the brain damage that results from the extreme cold
导致人们认为他们很热
causes people to think that they’re burning up,
所以他们脱光衣服来降温
so they strip naked and cool down.
另一个猜测是引导皮肤血管收缩的
Another theory suggests that the muscles that cause Cutaneous
肌肉疲惫了 导致了中心的血液
Vasoconstriction in our blood vessels get exhausted and cause blood
突然冲向了身体表面
from our core to rush to the surface of our body,
这导致了潮热 这就相当惨淡了
resulting in a hot flash. This is all pretty bleak,
但如果你发现了一个看起来冻死的人
but if you find someone who appears to be frozen to death,
你也许想帮他们暖和起来
you may want to warm them up.
有一个适宜的提示
An aptly named paper,
没有人会在热死和老死之前真正的死亡
No One is Dead Until Warm and Dead,
以前 有个溺水导致低体温症的病人
chronicles a patient with hypothermia caused by drowning with no signs of life.
他毫无生命迹象 却在3个小时的使他
This patient was successfully resuscitated
温暖的急救中成功苏醒了
with a 3-hour bypass surgery used to warm his body.
虽然他身体部分要截肢
Though parts of his body required amputation,
但他在11周内成功恢复了正常的神经功能
in 11 weeks he successfully recovered with normal neurological function.
要记住 当你的体温开始下降时
Just remember, when the temperature starts to drop,
尽全力来保持温暖
do everything you can to stay warm,
因为你的身体做了太多抵抗寒冷了
because your body can only do so much to fight the extreme cold.
所以 有什么方法可以帮助我们不冻死吗?
So what are the techniques to help your body survive freezing to death?
我们制作了如果你
We made a video of step-by-step
被困在寒冷中 能活下来的每步策略的视频
strategies to stay alive if you’re ever trapped in the extreme cold.
点击这里来学习救生方法
Click here to learn the life-saving,
但很可怕的是你得知道如何
but also gruesome things you need to know
去避免低体温症和冻死
to avoid hypothermia and freezing to death.
因为气候变暖会导致极端天气
With climate change causing extreme weather
我们也许需要了解更多未来的信息
we may all need this info in the future, and
所以请订阅每周一次的科普视频吧
subscribe for more weekly science videos.

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视频概述

一个人如何被冻死的过程和一些案例 教你如何在寒冷中求生

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zou

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oj5hAazXcs8

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