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你出生时都发生了些什么?

What Happens When You Are Born?

We’ve talked about what happens when you die,
我们讨论过当你死亡时会发生什么
It shows that proved to be very popular.
那个视频表名 这个话题很受欢迎
We think it’s only right we now talk about
我们觉得是时候来讨论下
how you came into this world.
你是如何来到这个世界的
We don’t know exactly how they came up with this number,
我们并不确切地知道他们是如何得出这个数字的
but some scientists say that
但有些科学家说
the odds of you being born were one in four hundred quadrillion.
你出生的几率是四万万亿分之一
Yep, you are special, and don’t ever forget that.
没错 你很特别 永远记住这一点
First there were the odds of your father hooking-up with your mother,
首先 你的父母相爱就是有一定几率的
and one scientist told Business Insider that those odds were one in twenty thousand.
有位科学家告诉《商业内幕》这个几率是二万分之一
Then you have the odds of them staying together,
然后你还要有以下可能 他们要在一起
getting past the first date, then the second,
度过第一次约会 第二次……
and staying with each other until they decided to have you.
陪伴彼此 直到他们决定孕育你
We are told to get to this point the odds are around one in forty million.
有人告诉我们 此几率实现的可能性约为四千万分之一
Now come the big odds,
现在来说一说大几率事件
because your mum will be born with one to two million eggs
因为你的妈妈会产出100万到200万个卵子
( 500 of which will be ovulated )
(其中有500个会被排出)
and your dad will make around 500 billion sperm.
而你的父亲大约会有5000亿个精子
Basically, the fact that one sperm met one egg and made you is pretty amazing.
从根本上来说 一个精子和一个卵子相遇并造就出了你 这真的好神奇
we also have to remember that for your parents to exist their ancestors had two to
同样 你的父母也是由他们的父母孕育
going back to the beginning of the human race.
这样一直向上 可以追溯到人类的起源
You being born was nothing short of a miracle.
你的出生简直就是一个奇迹
So, we know that for you to exist many things had to happen.
所以 许多事决定了我们的存在
But let’s just talk about the day or night that started you off.
但我们先来讨论下你生命开始的那个白天 抑或夜晚
We are sure you have had enough education to know that
我们相信你接受了足够的教育 知道
for you to exist your mother and father had to make love.
为了让你存在 你的父母要做爱
Not many people like thinking about this,
没有多少人喜欢思考这个
but that’s just what happened.
但事实如此
You probably also know that each time people make love
你可能知道 每次人们做爱
without any kind of contraception,
即便没有采取任何的避孕措施
it doesn’t mean guaranteed pregnancy.
这也并不意味着肯定能怀孕
There are many factors,
也有许多因素
including the age of the people as well as when they made love
包括人们的年龄 做爱的时间
and the people’s reproductive systems.
以及他们的生殖系统
Some people have to try very hard to make a kid,
有些夫妻备孕艰难
while other couples can’t seem to miss.
而有些夫妻一次就成
One doctor from the Women’s College Hospital and St. Joseph’s Health Centre in Toronto said that
多伦多女子学院医院 圣约瑟夫健康中心的一名医生说
if the woman is under 35 she has an 85 percent chance of conceiving in one
如果一位35岁以下的女性每次都在排卵期内做爱
year when making love in each menstrual cycle.
那么一年之内 她有85%的几率会怀上宝宝
The average cycle lasts 28 days.
这个平均周期为28天
The woman will ovulate after her period.
女性经期过后会排卵
The ovulation part starts about 14 days on average
排卵期从她月经结束后的第一天开始
after the first day of her last period.
平均大约14天
In many cases this part will happen about two weeks
在许多情况下 排卵期会发生在
before the woman has her next period.
女性下一次月经前两周左右
The woman will make an egg which is released by the ovaries
女性的卵巢会排出卵子
and it is passed down the fallopian tubes where it can meet a sperm.
卵子通过输卵管并与精子相遇
This lucky sperm can then fertilize the egg.
幸运的精子可以使卵子受精
And voila, the process of making a baby is on the way.
这样就可以孕育出小宝宝啦
To make a baby you don’t need to wait for the ovulation period,
要生孩子的话 不必等到排卵期
and you might not know
或许你不知道
that a man’s sperm can wait inside a woman for this egg to be made.
男性的精子可以在女性体内停留 以等待卵子的产生
It’s said sperm can live in a woman about 5 days,
据说精子可以在女性体内存活5天
although most don’t survive that long.
但是大多数都不能存活那么久
OK, so we know that a woman needs to produce an egg
就是这样 所以女性需要排卵 而且
and a sperm has to reach that egg and fertilize it.
精子必须接触到卵子 才能使其受精
But did you know that
但是你知道吗
a man will create around 525 billion sperm cells in a lifetime,
一个男人一生会释放约5250亿个精子细胞
something which led the now deceased comedian Bill Hicks to say
这让已故的喜剧演员比尔·希克斯(Bill Hicks)说道
he has wasted entire civilizations from releasing sperm when not making love.
他居然在不做爱的时候释放精子 简直浪费了整个文明
Live Science tells us that just one single shot
《生命科学》告诉我们 仅一次射精
can carry up to 40 million to 1.2 billion sperm cells.
就可释放多达4千万到12亿个精子细胞
Hmm, why on earth do we need so many of these things?
那究竟为什么我们需要如此之多的精子呢?
Scientists tell us the reason is basically because of competition.
科学家告诉我们 这主要是因为竞争
The more sperm, the better chance one will get to the egg.
精子越多 精子进入卵子的机会就越大
The highest sperm producers have the better chance of passing on their genes.
精子产量最高的人就更有可能将他们的基因遗传下去
The distance the sperm has to travel to meet the magic egg is only 15 centimeter,
精子与这个神奇卵子的相遇距离仅仅15厘米
but this is no easy swim.
但这并不容易
Some of them just flow back after take-off,
一些一开始就会回流
while others are killed by acidic fluids inside the woman.
而另一些则被女性体内的酸性液体杀死
These are basically non-starters.
这些精子基本上是接触不到卵子的
But of the many millions that are launched,
但在射出的数百万精子中
about two million make it to base one: the cervix.
大约有200万会到达第一个基地:子宫颈
Here some just run into walls and die,
其中 有些只是撞壁而亡
while others get trapped in mucus.
而另一些则被困在粘液中
It’s quite the race for those sperm and always fraught with danger.
这些精子的竞争相当激烈 总是充满危险
However, about one million will make it to base two: the uterus.
然而 还有大约100万的精子会到达第二个基地:子宫
Unfortunately, many come un down here and get taken out by white blood cells.
不幸的是 很多精子到达这里就被白血球攫取了
About 10,000 are now left and have made
大约有10000个精子可以存活下来
it all the way to the top of the uterus.
并一路到达子宫的顶部(子宫底)
They then head to the oviduct,
然后前往输卵管
and women have two of those but rarely make eggs in each.
女性有两条输卵管 但每条里面都有卵子的情况很少
That means about half of those dear sperm choose the wrong door and there’s nothing behind it.
这就意味着大约有一半的精子会选错通道 一无所获
The ones that went the right way will have to face the uterotubal junction,
而另一半选择正确的精子将会来到子宫输卵管交界处
a place where the oviduct and uterus is connected.
也就是输卵管与子宫相连的地方
This busy junction is tricky for the sperm to get through,
精子很难通过这个熙熙攘攘的交界处
and many get stuck in mucus.
有很多都被困在粘液里
From millions we now have about 1,000 survivors heading to
从数百万精子中存活下来的这1000个精子
where the star prize is kept down the fallopian tubes.
去往保存着“星等奖”的输卵管
Many don’t make it all the way to the egg and just die,
很多精子还没到达卵子的地方就死掉了
a sad thing when you think how far they made it.
一想到它们已经成功走了这么远 让人觉得很难过
But it gets worse, because there can be only one,
更糟糕的是 能占领高地的
in the words of the Highlander.
有且仅有一个
Something happens called a Cortical reaction,
这就是所谓的皮层反应
which is basically the woman’s egg blocking out multiple sperms.
基本上就是女性的卵子会阻止多个精子的侵入
Sometimes there is a winner,
有时 会有一个获胜的精子
and that tough sperm that won one of the hardest races in
这个获胜的赢得了世界上最艰难的一场赛跑的精子
the world is a part of you.
就是一部分的你
It’s by no means a done deal, though,
但这绝不是板上钉钉的事
as there is a chance of miscarriage.
因为还有流产的可能
This often happens early,
流产通常发生在早期
and if a woman gets past the 14-week mark,
但如果一个女性能顺利度过前14周
she only has one percent chance of losing the baby.
那么她失去这个孩子的可能性只有1%
So now we are in business,
所以现在我们可以说
you are on your way to being born.
你在出生的路上
There are stages of pregnancy and we call these stages trimesters.
妊娠期是分阶段的 我们一般把它分为三个阶段
The entire pregnancy should last on average about 40 weeks,
整个妊娠期持续下来通常约为40周
but as you know, some babies come out early.
但你知道的 也有些婴儿会早产
From the 1st week until the 12th week we call the first trimester.
从第1周到第12周 我们称之为妊娠早期
During this time the woman will likely notice a few changes,
在此期间 女性可能会有些许变化
such as possibly having mood swings, parts of her feeling swollen, feeling nauseous,
比如可能有情绪波动 部分人会感觉浮肿 恶心
having food cravings, or getting a headache or heartburn.
想吃东西 头痛 或者胃灼热
But what is happening inside?
那么体内会有什么变化呢?
For the first couple of weeks there isn’t much of a you yet.
最初几周 你还没有什么感觉
About one week after the sperm won that race and met the egg,
但在精子赢得比赛受精一周之后
the fertilized ovum attaches itself to the uterus lining and now the placenta starts to form.
受精卵附着在子宫内膜上 此时胎盘开始形成
At about two weeks the embryo looks a bit like a disc on this wall.
约到两周的时候 胚胎看起来就有点像这面墙上的圆盘
But it’s not until about four weeks that this little embryo starts sprouting things.
而直到第四周的时候 这个小胚胎才会开始发芽
The hearts starts to form,
心脏开始形成
and little buds develop where the legs and arms will be.
腿和胳膊所在的地方长出了小芽
All this is only about 1/25 of an inch.
但它们只有1/25英寸
The ears, eyes, nose, all start to develop,
耳朵 眼睛 鼻子 都开始发育
as do the spine and the digestive tract.
脊柱和消化道也一样
At about 8 weeks we have something a bit more human-looking,
约到第8周的时候 就有了一些看上去像人类的东西
what we call the fetus.
这也就是我们所说的胎儿
The heart is now properly functioning and the fetus has all the organs (not fully formed)
现在心脏功能正常 胎儿会拥有长成婴儿的所有器官
that the baby-to-be will have.
(但尚未完全成形)
Nascent bones are also now starting to form.
新生骨骼也开始形成
At 12 weeks we are starting to see a tiny human,
12周的时候 我们开始看到一个小小的人类
replete with larger head, genitalia,
它有较大的头 生殖器
tooth buds, and even fingernails and toenails.
牙芽 甚至指甲和脚趾甲
The baby can now move around, too,
婴儿现在也能在羊水里
in what’s called amniotic fluid.
动来动去了
This is the end of the first trimester.
妊娠早期就结束了
At the beginning of the second trimester the baby will be
妊娠中期刚开始的时候
about three inches long and weigh around an ounce.
婴儿大约三英寸长 一盎司重
The head will stop growing so fast
头部就不会长得那么快了
and the eyelids will close as the eyes develop.
眼皮会随着眼睛的发育而闭上
Nerves and muscles come into action and now this tiny fetus can even make a fist.
神经和肌肉开始活动 现在这个小小的胎儿甚至都可以握拳了
As the fetus is now bigger many women now will have a noticeable bump.
因为现在胎儿变大了 许多妇女腹部现在也都会有明显的隆起
They may also feel a bit better and
她们可能感觉也会舒服一点
stop having those awful feelings of nausea.
不再有那些恶心的感觉
Saying that, they might also have a lot of new aches and pains.
不过 她们可能会有许多新的痛苦和不适
Under the hood, at 16 weeks the baby’s skeleton keeps developing.
16周时 婴儿头盖骨以下的骨骼不断发育
The skin looks white, almost see-through.
皮肤看起来是白色的 近乎透明
The fetus at this point may have a bowel movement,
此时胎儿可能会有大便
but it will be something called meconium.
而这就是所谓的胎粪
This is a dark green substance that is pretty much poop.
胎粪是一种黑绿色的的物质 和便便差不多了
The fetus is now about four or five inches long and weights around three ounces.
此时胎儿大约有四五英寸长 三盎司重
At twenty weeks the little bundle of joy to be might get restless,
二十周的时候 小婴儿可能变得有点躁动不安
and that’s when the woman might start feeling the baby kicking.
这时女性可能会开始感觉到婴儿在踢她
Many body parts are now fully formed, such as fingernails and toenails.
许多身体部位现在已经完全成形 比如指甲和脚趾甲
We are told it can even start scratching itself at this point.
有人告诉我们 此时它甚至可以开始挠自己了
It can also swallow and hear things.
它还能吞咽 听到声响
Moving on to week twenty four during the second trimester
接下来是妊娠中期的24周
the baby makes its own blood cells from bone marrow.
婴儿从骨髓中制造自己的血细胞
It now has fingerprints.
它现在有了指纹
It can taste things as taste buds form on the tongue
当舌头上的味蕾形成 它就能尝东西了
and it will even get a bit of hair.
它甚至还会有些毛发
The lungs are not properly developed yet,
虽然肺还没有发育好
but that process is on the way.
但也在进行中了
Whether a boy or a girl,
无论是男孩还是女孩
the fetus will now start developing its own reproductive organs.
胎儿都将开始发育自己的生殖器官
Another thing that starts now is a normal sleep cycle.
此刻开始它也有正常的睡眠周期了
At this point it is about 12 inches long
此时的它约有12英寸长
and might weigh in the region of 1.5 pounds.
1.5磅左右重
Welcome to the third trimester,
欢迎来到妊娠晚期
the point in time when the woman is carrying around a lot of extra weight.
当女性体内的胎儿重到一定程度
There will be discomfort at times,
有时她就会觉得不舒服
and that’s just the body reacting to having another thing grow inside of it.
但这只是身体对另一种东西在它内部生长作出的反应
At 32 weeks we almost have the finished package.
32周的时候 婴儿几乎就发育完成了
The baby’s bones are not fully developed,
婴儿的骨头还没有发育完全
but they are getting there.
但也差不多了
It can now open and close its eyes.
它现在可以睁眼和闭眼
The lungs are still not fully-formed,
虽然婴儿的肺也还没有完全成形
but the baby at this point will be practicing breathing.
但此时它可以练习呼吸了
At this point the baby is also storing
此时 婴儿也开始储存所有
all the natural minerals it needs to be healthy.
它所需要的天然矿物质以保持健康
Right now it might be as long as 16 inches
现在它可能有16英寸长
and may weigh about 4 pounds or more.
4磅重 或者更重
At 36 weeks something called vernix thickens around the baby.
36周时 胎儿周围有一种叫做胎儿皮脂的东西变厚了
This is a waxy coating that protects the baby.
胎儿皮脂是一种保护婴儿的蜡质涂层
It’s now storing a fair bit of body fat,
它现在储存了不少身体脂肪
and that means less space to move around.
这也就意味着活动空间变小了
The woman will feel fewer of those kicks.
女性会感到胎儿的踢腿少了
We usually have a fetus now
通常情况下 此时的胎儿
about 18 inches long and weighing around six pounds.
长约18英寸 重约6磅
After this point we have the real deal
此后 它就妥妥的了
meaning the fetus has organs that are fully developed for the world outside.
也就是说胎儿器官已经发育完全 基本能适应外部环境
As the time draws nearer to birth,
随着产期的临近
the baby may switch into a head-first position.
婴儿可能会转换成头先着地的姿势
It’s just a matter of time now
距离它来到这个世界 第一次呼吸
until it comes out and takes its first breaths in the world.
只是时间问题
When it does it may weigh about 6-9 pounds, but that can change.
它出生时可能约有6到9磅重 但也不一定
Its length might be around 20 inches, but that can change, too.
长度可能在20英寸左右 但同样地 也不一定
Then what happens?
然后会发生什么呢?
Well, in those first moments after it comes out,
嗯嗯 在婴儿出生之后的最初这段时间里
the people around may clean the baby and evaluate its health.
周围的人可能会给它清洗并评估其健康状况
It’s nose and throat will be very gently cleared.
它的鼻子和喉咙会被轻轻地清理干净
The umbilical cord will be clamped in two places and then it will be cut.
脐带会被夹在两处 然后剪断
In case you didn’t know,
你可能不知道
this cord connects the baby to the women’s womb.
脐带可以把婴儿和妇女的子宫连接起来
It takes oxygen and nutrients to the baby from the placenta.
把氧气和营养从胎盘输送给婴儿
Anyway, after it is cut it will leave a stump.
总之 它被割下来后会留下一个残段
This will turn dry and just drop off.
残段变干 就掉落下来
After around 7 days or more the bellybutton should be fully healed.
约7天之后 也许更久 肚脐就可以完全愈合了
What else happens right after birth?
出生后还会发生什么呢?
Well, the baby will likely have antibiotic ointment rubbed
嗯嗯 为了阻止感染
on its eyes to stop infection.
很可能要在婴儿眼部擦抗生素软膏
It will also receive an injection of vitamin K to help its blood clot.
为了帮助它的血液凝块 还要给它打一针维生素K
As we said, doctors will check if the baby’s health is good,
就像我们所说的 医生会检查婴儿的健康状况是否良好
but another important thing is to make sure its temperature is right.
但还有一件很重要的事情就是确保婴儿体温正常
If all is good, after a few hours it may get a sponge bath.
如果婴儿一切良好的话 数小时之后还可能给它洗个海绵澡
It will then likely get a little cap to wear to keep its head warm
接着还有可能给它戴上一顶小帽来保持头部的温暖
and in time will get its first taste of mother’s milk.
让它及时尝到第一口母乳的味道
Baby and mother can usually go home after 24 to 48 hours,
通常 婴儿和母亲在24到48小时之后就可以回家了
but more tests might need to be done.
但可能还要做更多的检查
You might also have to visit the hospital again
差不多一周以后 你可能还得
just for a check up after a week or so.
再去医院检查一下
And that’s that,
就是这样
this is how you were born, or close to it.
你就是这样出生的 差别不大
We’ve all been there and we are all lucky in some ways to be alive.
我们都经历过 从某些方面来说 能够活着我们都很幸运
An indomitable sperm met with an almighty egg
在父母表演完大自然赋予生命的舞蹈后
after your mother and father had performed nature’s life-giving dance
顽强的精子和强大的卵子就此相遇
How cool is that.
多酷啊
If you found this video interesting,
如果你觉得这个视频有趣的话
I suggest you check out our most popular video, What
我建议你去看下我们最受欢迎的视频
Happens When You Die?
《当你死亡时会发生什么》
Thanks for watching, and as always,
一如既往 谢谢观看
don’t forget to like, share and subscribe.
不要忘记点击点赞 分享 订阅喔
See you next time.
下期再会

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谈谈你出生时发生的那些事儿,比如你是怎么来的,历经什么呱呱落地的……

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJbdYcCFp50

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