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我们睡觉时身体会发生什么?

What happens when we sleep? | The Economist

我们睡觉时身体会发生什么?
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE SLEEP?
每个夜晚 几乎地球上的每个人
Every night, almost everyone on the planet
都会进入一种无意识的麻痹状态
enters into a state of unconsciousness and paralysis.
但当我们慢慢睡着时 我们体内究竟发生了什么呢?
But what is really happening inside the body when we drift off?
如果我们没有得到充足睡眠又会有什么影响呢?
And what’s the impact if we don’t get enough sleep?
睡眠是由你的生理节律
Sleep is regulated by your circadian rhythm,
也就是位于你大脑的生物钟所控制的
or body clock, located in the brain.
生物钟会对光照产生反应
The body clock responds to light cues,
在夜晚 它会增加褪黑激素的分泌
ramping up production of the hormone melatonin at night
当感应到光照时 它就会停止
and switching it off when it senses light.
人的身体在整个晚上会经历四个睡眠阶段的循环
There are four stages of sleep that the body experiences in cycles throughout the night.
如果我们睡得好 这些阶段会循环四次或五次
On a good night, we cycle through these stages four or five times.
第一阶段和第二阶段是浅睡眠
Stages one and two are light sleep.
这是从清醒状态到入睡的过渡阶段
This is a transition from being awake to falling asleep.
此时心跳和呼吸速度开始减缓
Heart rate and breathing begin to slow,
体温下降 肌肉可能产生抽搐
body temperature falls, and muscles may twitch.
第三阶段有时被称为Delta睡眠
Stage three is sometimes referred to as delta sleep
因为在这个阶段 人类会释放Delta慢脑电波
because of the slow delta brainwaves that are released during this stage.
这是深度睡眠的第一阶段
This is the first stage of deep sleep,
深度睡眠时 我们的细胞会为骨骼和肌肉
where our cells produce the most growth hormone
分泌大量生长激素 使身体进行自我修复
to service bones and muscles, allowing the body to repair itself.
第四阶段 我们开始做梦
Stage four is where we begin to dream.
身体产生的化学物质使我们的身体暂时性瘫痪
The body creates chemicals that render it temporarily paralyzed
这样我们在做梦时身体就不会动
so that we do not act out our dreams.
在这一阶段 我们的大脑特别活跃
In this stage, the brain is extremely active
尽管闭着眼 但我们的眼球会快速来回移动
and our eyes, although closed, dart back and forth
就像我们醒着时那样
as if we were awake.
人的一生大概三分之一的时间都在睡觉
Humans roughly spend 1/3 of their lives asleep.
现代的生活方式 压力以及科技的迅速发展
Modern lifestyles, stress, and the proliferation of technology
使得现在人们的睡眠时间比一百年前少的多
mean that people are sleeping far less today than they were a century ago.
每天的睡眠时间不足七小时
Sleeping less than seven hours per day
会增加患慢性疾病的风险
is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic conditions,
从而减少人的预期寿命
which could reduce life expectancy.
所以为了更加健康长寿 多睡觉吧
So for a healthier, longer life, get some shuteye.

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睡觉时身体的活动

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