未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

骨骼无法正常构建的结果有多糟糕

What Happens When Bone Regeneration Goes Wrong

your skeleton has the difficult task of being
你的骨骼“身负重任”
strong and hard enough to hold your whole body up,
那就是得足够坚硬以支撑你的身体
but bendy and shock-absorbing enough not to break upon minor impact.
但也要有足够的韧性和减震能力以防骨头在轻微冲击下断裂
So when something goes wrong in the bone-forming process,
所以如果在骨骼生成过程中出现问题
your bones can get weaker and the results can be shattering.
你的骨头会变脆 结果会很严重

Under a microscope, healthy bone looks like a honeycomb.
在显微镜下 健康的骨头呈蜂窝状
It’s a matrix of flexible collagen protein
它是一种具有弹性的胶原蛋白基质
with harder minerals, calcium and phosphate, laid down on top,
且基质上沉积有较硬的矿物质 钙和磷酸盐
so it naturally has little gaps in it.
因此骨头里自然存在一些小缝隙
But if something interrupts the formation of healthy bone,
但如果某些东西妨碍健康骨骼的形成
those gaps get bigger, like in osteoporosis,
导致骨中的间隙变大 如骨质疏松症
which literally means ‘porous bone’.
其按字面意思理解为 “多孔骨骼”
My name is Dr. Suneela Vegunta.
我是Suneela Vegunta医生
I am one of the women’s health providers here at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona.
我是亚利桑那梅奥诊所的一名女性保健人员
I have been here at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona for almost nine years now.
目前在梅奥诊所工作近9年了
We see patients with a lot of women’s health problems,
我们接诊过很多患有健康问题的女性
and osteoporosis is a very common women’s health problem.
骨质疏松症是一个非常普遍的女性健康问题
Your bones are a living, dynamic tissue,
你的骨骼是活跃的 动态的组织
constantly regenerating themselves to stay healthy.
它不断再生以维持健康状态
This is called bone remodeling,
这个过程被称为骨骼重塑
and occurs throughout our entire lives。
而且骨骼重塑将伴随我们一生
in fact, about every ten years,
实际上 大约每十年
your entire skeleton has been replaced with new, healthy bone …
你的全身骨骼会被更新一遍
Thanks to specialized cells,
这得益于一些特化细胞
One is the bone chewing cell,
其中一种是“咀嚼”骨头的细胞
which is called the osteoclast, which chews up the bone,
它被称为破骨细胞 可以“嚼碎”骨头
and it chews up the old bone.
我是说 它“嚼碎”老化的骨头
As the old bone is being chewed up and being absorbed,
当老化的骨头被“嚼碎” 吸收后
the new bone is being formed by a different type of cell called osteoblast.
另一种不同的细胞 成骨细胞 会形成新的骨头
So this process is usually coupled.
“破骨”和“成骨”通常同时进行
They go hand-in-hand.
他们齐头并进
A few essential ingredients are necessary
在维持骨骼形成中的平衡状态时
to keep this bone-forming process in balance, mainly calcium.
一些基本成分很重要 主要是钙
Your whole body relies on calcium in some form or another,
你的整个身体都依赖于某种形式的钙
so if you’re not consuming enough of it,
所以如果你没有摄入足量的钙
your body will cannibalize the calcium it needs from your bones.
你的身体就会从骨骼中转移所需要的钙
So let’s say that they are low blood calcium levels,
假设他们的血钙水平很低
and calcium is essential for muscle metabolism.
而钙对于肌肉代谢至关重要
So heart being a muscle, the heart is essentially muscle,
而心脏由肌肉组成 其本质上就是肌肉
in order to stabilize the calcium levels,
钙会从骨头中“调拨”出来
the calcium can be pulled from the bone.
以稳定钙水平
So if there’s not enough calcium or adequate amount of calcium,
因此如果机体中没有足够量的钙
the bone formation process can be hampered or impaired.
会阻碍或者破坏骨生成过程
And that impairment is what can lead to osteoporosis.
而这种损害会导致骨质疏松
Now,while calcium is definitely an essential ingredient,
至此 虽然钙明显是必不可缺的成分
other key ingredients are just as important.
其它关键成分也同样重要
So not only just calcium, you know,
因此不仅是钙
there are other things that actually affect
实际上还有其它一些因素
bone density nutrition-wise,like vitamin D.
影响营养骨密度 比如 维生素D
Vitamin D is essential for absorption of calcium and phosphate in the gut.
维生素D对于肠道吸收钙和磷酸盐至关重要
And all kinds of things can impair your body’s absorption of calcium:
而很多因素会降低人体对钙的吸收能力
too much protein, too much salt, too much caffeine,
如饮食中含过多的蛋白质 盐 咖啡因
or too much acid in your diet can all block the absorption
或者过多的酸 都会阻碍这些
of calcium for use in building healthy bones.
将会用于重塑健康骨骼的钙的吸收
So can habits that are bad for your body in many ways, like smoking.
而且各种对身体有害的习惯也会阻碍钙吸收 比如吸烟
It impairs the osteoblastic activity,
它削弱成骨细胞活性
whereas the bone chewing part or the osteoclastic activity continues,
尽管如此 “成骨”或“破骨”过程持续进行
so they can actually cause the uncoupling that we were talking about.
就会导致我们谈论到的破骨和成骨过程不平衡
So avoiding all of those things and following
因此 避免这些坏习惯
healthy life habits will be very helpful.
遵从健康生活习惯是(对骨骼重塑)非常有帮助的
But bone loss can occur because of factors beyond our control as well.
但是骨质流失也会由一些无法控制的因素导致
Like aging, and what hormones we have less of as we age.
比如衰老 随着年龄增长我们体内的激素流失
So an osteoporotic bone,
进而导致骨质疏松
if you look at a normal bone which has normal bone density,
如果你观察一具有正常骨密度的骨骼
the trabeculae or the holes between the matrix,
其骨小梁或基质之间的孔隙
are much smaller compared to an osteoporotic
会比骨质疏松的空隙要小很多
bone where there’s less matrix and the pores are much bigger,
骨质疏松的骨头上基质更少 而孔隙更大
making it very fragile and easy to fracture.
使得这类骨头非常脆弱 容易骨折
And here’s the thing:
此外
until your bone fractures when it shouldn’t,
直到你遭遇意料之外的骨折
,you don’t know that you have osteoporosis.
你才会知道自己患有骨质疏松症
there are absolutely no symptoms for osteoporosis.
骨质疏松绝对没有征兆
So the first symptom of an osteoporosis can be a fracture.
因此 骨质疏松症的第一个症状就是骨折
These are called fragility fractures.
这种被称为脆性骨折
So a woman can actually fall from a standing height or even,
因此当一个女人从站立高度跌落
you know, not even no trauma,
甚至没有外伤
just spontaneous fractures.
只有自发性骨折
That’s why screening is very important
这就是疾病筛查对于高风险女性重要的原因
in high-risk women to diagnose if they have osteoporosis
可以诊断出她们是否患有骨质疏松症
and to intervene in a timely fashion.
并及时进行干预
Because when it comes to bone loss…sex matters.
因为谈及骨质流失的原因时……性别很重要
Just to reiterate, sex steroids are very helpful for bone formation,
重申一下 性类固醇对骨骼的形成非常有帮助
especially estrogen in women,
尤其是女性分泌的雌激素
is helpful for bone formation and even absorption of calcium from the gut.
对于骨骼的形成 甚至肠道钙吸收十分有帮助
Women typically have lower bone density and muscle mass than men to begin with
通常 女性的骨密度和肌肉量本来就比男性低
that’s just one of the ways sexual dimorphism expresses itself in our species. That,
这仅是两性异形在我们人类身上的表现形式之一
plus the sex hormone component, means that women, especially as they age, are more
再加上性激素的原因 意味着女性会随着年龄增长
prone to osteoporosis and fragile bones in a way that most men are not.
在某种程度上更容易发生骨质疏松 骨骼变脆 而大多数男性却不会
Around menopause, the estrogen levels are very low,
绝经前后 雌激素水平都会很低
and it’s a state called hypoestrogenism,
这种状态被称为雌激素不足
where there’s very low estrogen in the system.
意味着体内雌激素水平很低
So that low estrogen by itself can actually cause some deleterious effects on the bone.
而实际上低水平雌激素本身就会对骨骼产生一些有害影响
But we can do ourselves a huge favor
但是 我们可以“自救”
when we’re young by building our bone density up as much as we can, while we can.
趁我们年轻 有能力时尽己所能地增加骨骼密度
The peak bone density is reached around ages 25 to 35,
骨密度会在25至35岁左右时达到峰值
so we reach our peak bone mass by that time.
那时我们的骨量也会达到峰值
So our habits,or health habits during this phase of our life
因此在这一阶段中我们的生活习惯不论好坏
actually affects how much peak bone density we reach.
都会切实地影响个人骨密度峰值的大小
While we can and should build up our bone density in that peak bone-building phase,
在骨形成的高峰时期 我们可以且必须提高骨密度
all hope is not lost if we want to take action later in life.
当然我们也可在后续发育阶段进行弥补
I have seen in my practice many patients improving their bone density with
在实践中 我已经看到很多患者仅通过改变生活方式
just purely lifestyle modifications.
就能提高他们的骨密度
Vitamin D and C supplements, avoidance of smoking and excessive alcohol,
补充维生素D和维生素C 不抽烟 不过量饮酒
are all great ideas for building bone mass while young
都对年轻时骨量的储备
and keeping your bones healthy later in life.
和往后生活中骨骼健康状态的维持有益
And maybe… try to avoid going to space if you can help it.
如果可能的话 尽量避免去太空
exercise is very essential for bone building, bone formation,
运动对于骨骼的建立和形成非常有必要
because exercise and especially weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercises,
因为运动 特别是承重和肌肉增强运动
they actually stimulate the osteoblastic activity where there’s more bone forming.
可以在骨骼形成活跃的地方激发成骨细胞的活性
You can actually see that in people who travel to space like astronauts
你可在有太空旅行经历的人 比如宇航员 中看到这种情况
where there is no weight bearing.
由于太空中没有负重
When they come back and reach Earth,
当他们回到地面时
they actually lost 30 % of their bone density
宇航员会因此
because there’s no weight bearing in space.
实际损失30%的骨密度
So that tells us that weight bearing is very essential for bone building and bone formation.
这告诉我们负重对骨骼的形成发育是多么重要

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

简单介绍了骨骼的构建过程,影响骨构建的因素以及骨质疏松的预防。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

不系舟

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lApqklFkv9c

相关推荐