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当夜猫子早起时 – 译学馆
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当夜猫子早起时

What Happens When A Night Owl Wakes Up Early

改善睡眠的方法不计其数
– [Narrator] There is plenty of advise for how to improve your sleep.
作息规律
Go to bed at the same time,
熄灯后不玩电子产品且不要赖床
avoid digital screens after dark, and don’t hit snooze.
但这些方法都建立在
But it all comes down to the same assumption,
你有这些坏习惯的假设上
that you’re doing something wrong.
而事实上 这可能并不是你的问题
When in fact, it may not be your fault at all.
地球上几乎所有生物内部
Inside practicallyevery organism on earth,
都有一个维持生理节奏的时钟
there’s a clock that keeps order.
也就是通常所说的生物钟
Known as a circadian rhythm.
对人类来说 它位于我们大脑中下丘脑处
For humans, it’s located in the part of our brain called hypothalamus.
下丘脑不仅作用于我们的睡眠系统
And while it’s most famous for controlling our sleep cycles,
同时负责协调人体主要器官的工作运转
it’s also responsible for helping primary organs
如大脑 心脏 肺等
like the brain, heart, and lungs work in harmony.
但每个人的生物钟各不相同
But not everyone’s circadian rhythm is the same.
例如 夜猫子往往比早起的人更不容易犯困
Night owls, for instance, generally feel tired later than early birds
一般是因为夜猫子在晚上
Often because they produce high amounts
分泌大量褪黑激素的时间更晚
of the sleep hormone melatonin later at night.
而且从人类历史的大部分来说不是问题
And for most of human history, that didn’t matter.
因为夜猫子能在夜间帮助部落抵御肉食动物
Since night owls could protect their tribes from nocturnal predators,
或是保护城池免受狡猾敌人的入侵
or their cities from cunning conquerors.
但近几十年 这却成了社会上的一大问题
But society has made it a problem in recent decades.
据估计 八成美国人按照日程表行事
An estimated 80% of Americans follow daily schedules
行程时间介于早六点到晚六点之间
that fall between 6AM and 6PM.
而有近三分之一的人却认为自己是夜猫子
Yet nearly a 1/3 of the population considers themselves night owls,
这意味着他们最好都有一份日程表
which means they’re better off with a schedule
就像这张表一样
that looks more like this.
这种现象叫社交时差
This phenomenon is called social jetlag.
这就像你在长途飞行后倒时差一样
It’s like the jetlag you feel after a long plane trip
但社交时差短期内不会消失 所以更糟糕
but worse because it doesn’tdisappear after a few days.
社交时差正在榨取世界上的夜猫子们
And social jetlag is taking its toll on the night owls of the world.
因为即便你睡眠充足
because even if you get therecommended amount of sleep,
打破你原有的生物钟也会带来问题
knocking your circadian rhythmout of wack has consequences.
比如 研究发现
For example, one studyfound that for every hour
生物钟每偏离一小时
your circadian rhythm is out of sync,
会增加33%的肥胖风险
your risk of obesity increases by 33%.
同时 因肥胖引起许多相关疾病的风险也会增加
Also increasing your risk ofthe many health complications associated with obesity
这不仅仅是身体健康问题
and the problem isn’t just a physical one.
还有研究表明 作息时间与生物钟
In another study, peoplewhose circadian rhythms
偏差超过两个小时的人
were more than two hours off,
患重度抑郁地倾向会更加显著
reported notably more severesymptoms of depression.
由于生物钟会随年龄增加而改变
And since your circadianrhythm tends to shift as your age,
青少年在社交时差的问题尤为明显
social jetlag isespecially apparent in teens.
事实上 CDC提醒大多数全美公立学校
In fact, the CDC warnsthat most public schools
避免在八点半之前过早开课
across America starttoo early, before 8:30,
根据非盈利组织RAND统计
which according to thenon-profit RAND Corporation,
国家每年都会花费九十亿
is costing the countrynine billion dollars a year
主要用于提高学生的学习成绩
from mainly lost academicperformance and car crashes
以及治理因青少年犯困引起的车祸上
from tired teens behind the wheel.
幸运的是生物钟也不是一成不变的
Luckily, the circadianrhythm isn’t set in stone.
其实 生物钟大体受眼睛接收到的光信号影响
Turns out, it’s largelytriggered by light signals that strike your eye.
早上你一觉醒来
So when you first wake up,
走出房间 沐浴着阳光
get outside and soak up some morning sun.
即使做不到这样 也要确保家里光线合适
Or if that’s out of the question, make sure your home is well-lit.
这样 你的晨间时刻才会多一些惬意
It might just brightenyour morning a little more.
我们想知道你们还想了解有关人体的哪些知识
We’d like to learn what you wan na know about the human body.
在评论区告诉我们吧 谢谢收看
Tell us in the commentsand thanks of watching.

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当夜猫子早起时

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