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睡梦中大脑会发生什么

What Happens To Your Brain When You Dream

我是马修•沃克
– My name is Matthew Walker.
是一名神经系统科学以及心理学教授
I am a professor ofneuroscience and psychology
任职于加利佛尼亚 伯克利的一所大学
at the University of California Berkeley,
同时我还是《我们为什么要睡觉》一书的作者
and I am the author ofthe book, Why We Sleep.
梦是什么 做梦时都发生了什么
What is dreaming and what happens?
做梦有什么实质性好处呢 好吧
And are there any realbenefits to dreaming? Well,
让我们回到第一个问题 我想指出
to take a step back,I think it’s important
很重要的一点就是 当我们做梦时
to note that dreaming,essentially, is a time
我们实际上都变成了“疯子”
when we all become flagrantly psychotic.
在你可能否定这一诊断之前
And before you, perhaps,dismiss that diagnosis,
先让我说明一下五点原因
I’ll give you five good reasons.
第一 你昨晚做梦时
Because last night when you were dreaming, first,
会看到一些并不存在于此的东西
you started to seethings which were not there,
所以是你产生了幻觉 第二
so you were hallucinating. Second,
你相信一些不可能事情是真实的
you believed thingsthat couldn’t possibly be true, so,
所以你在妄想 第三
you were delusional. Third,
你开始对时间 地点 人物产生困惑
you became confusedabout time, place, and person, so,
所以你迷失了 第四
you’re suffering from disorientation. Fourth,
你的情绪如摆钟一样波动很大
you had wildly fluctuatingemotions like a pendulum.
也就是我们所说的情绪不稳定
Something that we callbeing affectively labile.
而且 神奇的是 当你早上醒来
And then, how wonderfulyou woke up this morning
即使你没有完全忘记梦境也忘的差不多了 所以
and you’ve forgotten most, if not all, of that dream experience. So,
你发生了记忆缺失
you’re suffering from amnesia.
而只要你在清醒时
And if you were toexperience any one of those
有其中任何一种症状
five symptoms while you were awake,
你可能就需要寻求心理或神经方面的治疗了
you would be seeking psychologicalor psychiatric treatment. Yet,
然而 当这些在睡觉时发生
during sleep anddreaming it seems to be both
就是生理或心理正常反应了
a normal biological andpsychological process.
那么做梦有什么用 有什么好处呢 嗯
What are the functions, then,or benefits of dreaming? Well,
我们都知道睡梦主要是由
we know that dream sleep which principally
快速眼动睡眠
comes from a stage that we call rapid eye
即快速眼动造成的
movement sleep, or REM sleep.
实际上睡梦对大脑至少
Dream sleep, actually, provides at least
有两种好处
two benefits for the brain.
首先是创造力
The first is actually creativity.
当你在快速眼动睡眠 尤其是梦到一定事物时
Because it’s during REM sleep,and dreaming specifically,
你的大脑会将你最近获得的信息
when the brain starts tocollide all of the information
以及你储存在大脑中
that you’ve recently learned together
各种以前经历过的事情的信息
with all of this backcatalog of autobiographical
进行碰撞整合
information that you’vegot stored up in the brain,
并建立起新的联系
and it starts to build novel connections.
就像是对记忆进行集体治疗
It’s almost like grouptherapy for memories.
通过在晚上对信息进行这种升华
And through this pattern ofinformational alchemy at night
我们能修复脑中广泛的联系网
we create a revised mind-wideweb of associations.
而你也能将新得到的奇特想法
And you can start todivine new novel insights
应用于之前未解决的问题中
into previously unsolved problems,
于是当你第二天醒来就有了新的解决办法
so that you wake up the nextmorning with new solutions.
这也是为什么没有会建议你
And it’s probably the reason that no one has ever told you
在遇到问题时一定不能睡着 相反
that you should stay awake on a problem. Instead,
人们会让你遇到问题时睡一觉
people tell youto sleep on a problem.
而且现在我们有证据说明
And we now have good evidencethat it’s dream sleep
是睡梦将简单到知识
that gifts you that typeof informational wisdom
转变为了我们的智慧
rather than simply knowledge.
睡梦的第二个好处从本质上讲
The second benefit of dreamsleep is, essentially,
是一种夜间治疗
a form of overnight therapy.
在我们睡觉时 我们开始
It’s during dream sleep where we start
将经历的不如人愿的甚至是
to actually take the painfulsting out of difficult,
创伤性的情感体验造成的痛苦消除
even traumatic emotionalexperiences that we’ve been having.
而且睡眠可以把苦楚的情感
And sleep, almost, divorcesthat emotional, bitter
从我们白天经历的事情
rind from the memory experiences that
的记忆中分离出来
we’ve had during the day.
当我们第二天早晨醒来
And so that we wake up the next morning
我们对那些经历会感觉好些
feeling better about those experiences. So,
你可以把梦当作对情绪的紧急处理
you can think of dreamsleep as emotional first aid.
起到一种夜用镇痛剂的作用
And it sort of just offersthis nocturnal soothing balm
可以减轻那些痛苦
that smooths those painful, stinging edges
那些困苦的经历带来的刺痛
of difficult experiences. So,
因此 虽然这不能治愈所有的伤痛
it’s not time that heals all wounds,
但是在睡梦期间
but it’s time duringdream sleep that provides
给了你情感上的治愈
you with emotional convalescence.
(轻柔的音乐)
(soft music)

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视频概述

今晚你做梦了,你觉得做梦对你的生活有影响吗?让我们一起来探索睡梦的奥秘吧!

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBby0RJw3Dc

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