未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

霉菌可以食用吗?

What Happens If You Eat Mold?

You’ve seen it growing on your fruit,
你一定在水果上见过它
eating your leftovers,
它吃着你的残羹剩饭
and maybe even hiding in your basement.
甚至可能藏在你的地窖里
This is mold.
它就是霉菌
It smells bad, it’s creepy-looking,
它闻起来恶心 看着令人头皮发麻
and even if you don’t know much about it,
尽管你对它不甚了解
you probably know enough to keep it
但至少你知道
as far away from your mouth as possible.
尽量不要把它吃下去
但如果你不小心误食了霉菌 会如何呢?
它会对身体产生什么影响呢?
会不会有某些品种的霉菌吃起来很美味?
这里是《自然无常》
接下来说说吃了霉菌会发生什么吧
There are up to 300,000 different types of mold,
世界上有多达30万种不同的霉菌
and they could affect you in very different ways.
它们能对你产生各种各样的影响
Some could ruin your day by causing nausea or diarrhea.
有的能引起恶心和腹泻 让你难受一整天
Some could be used to make expensive cheeses,
有的却能用来制作昂贵的奶酪
and others could nearly kill you!
还有一些会导致死亡
So how do you know which kind of mold you’re dealing with?
那如何知道我们遇到的是哪一种霉菌呢?
And is it ever okay to just eat around the mold on your food?
霉斑周围的部分还能吃吗?
I’m asking for a friend.
我请教了一位朋友
Mold is the microscopic fungi you can find living on plants,
霉菌是一种微小的真菌 你能在植物上
animals, and even in buildings.
动物身上甚至墙面上见到它们
Molds form branches that are like thin threads called hyphae.
霉菌的分枝像细细的线 它们被称作菌丝
These can burrow into food,
它们能钻进食物里 不易被发现
something you might miss since they can be difficult to see.
因此人们可能忽略它们的存在
If you do notice mold growing on your food,
如果你发现霉菌长在了食物上
your first question will probably be,
你可能首先会问
hmm,”should I throw this away?”
额 我要扔掉它吗?
So we’ve put together a little guide to help you figure it out.
我们总结了一些经验来帮你解决这个问题
If you find mold on soft foods like yogurts, jams,
如果你在易咀嚼的食物如酸奶 果酱
peaches, or tomatoes,
桃子或西红柿里发现了霉菌
you should throw them out right away.
你最好马上扔掉它们
But if you find mold on harder foods like cheese, carrots,
但如果你在较坚硬的食物如奶酪 胡萝卜
or hard salami,
或硬香肠上发现了霉菌
it’s ok to cut the mold out and eat the rest of your food.
只需把长霉的部分切掉 然后吃剩下的部分
Harder, denser foods are more difficult for mold to penetrate,
霉菌不易在质地较硬 密度较大的食物内部生长
meaning it can’t spread inwards as quickly
也就是说它们不能像在柔软的食物内部那样
as it can in softer foods.
快速地生长
But let’s imagine that you didn’t have this handy guide,
假如你不知道这个妙招
and you ate some moldy food.
你吃了发霉的食物
What would happen to you?
会怎么样呢?
Well, the biggest problem wouldn’t be the mold itself.
最大的问题不是霉菌本身
It’s the other things
而是随着霉菌
that come along with the mold that could really hurt you.
进入体内的那些有害物质
First off, there’s the invisible bacteria that can accompany the mold.
首先是一种与霉菌共生且肉眼不可见的细菌
If you eat that bacteria you would experience stomach pain, vomiting,
如果误食这种细菌 你会胃痛 呕吐
and several urgent trips to the washroom.
还会火急火燎地跑几趟厕所
But that would be nothing compared
但这和误食另外一种真菌毒素
to the damage that would come
所产生的危害相比
from eating something called mycotoxins.
可谓小巫见大巫
Mycotoxins are poisonous substances that are produced
真菌毒素是由真菌的某些特定种类的菌株
by certain strains of mold;
所产生的有毒物质
they can be found in a variety of foods,
我们能在许多食物里找到它们
and can survive almost all kinds of food processing.
它们几乎能在所有的食品加工过程中存活
There are many kinds of mycotoxins, about 500 to be specific.
真菌毒素种类繁多 具体来讲 约有500种
Perhaps the most dangerous variety is known as aflatoxin.
其中最危险的可能就是黄曲霉毒素
Aflatoxin grows on corn and peanuts.
黄曲霉长在玉米和花生上
Too much aflotoxin can cause liver damage, cancer,
摄入过量的黄曲霉毒素会使肝功能受损
DNA damage, and immune system deficiency.
诱发癌症 损害DNA并造成免疫系统缺陷
But not all mold is harmful.
并非所有霉菌都是有害的
In fact, some people eat mold on purpose.
实际上有些人会刻意食用霉菌
Take blue cheese, for example;
比如蓝纹奶酪
it’s produced using the non-toxic blue molds penicillium roqueforti and penicillium glaucum.
它由两种无毒蓝色霉菌 娄阁法尔特氏青霉和灰绿青霉制成
These molds have anti-bacterial properties that enable them to suppress pathogens.
这类霉菌有抗菌作用 能够抑制病原体
They also break down proteins,
它们同样能分解蛋白质
which is why blue cheese is so creamy and has a sharp flavor.
因此蓝纹奶酪口感光滑细腻 气味刺鼻
Just like most things on our planet,
像地球上大多数事物一样
there’s more to mold than meets the eye.
霉菌还有许多功能有待人们发现
Sure it can make you sick, but
它的确可以致病
it’s also the key to one
但它对于
of the most powerful antibiotics of all time:
至今最有效的抗生素——青霉素的发现
Penicillin.
至关重要
Maybe there’s another world-changing innovation
说不定在这个毛绒绒的蓝色物体里
just waiting to be discovered somewhere in that fuzzy blue mess,
存在着另一种改变世界的新物质
but that’s a topic for another WHAT IF.
当然这是另一个假设的话题了

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

霉菌种类繁多,有的危险至极能致命,有的却可以用来制作食物,还有一些具有医学用途,能治病,让我们一起来看看吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vIogSJ7kTo

相关推荐