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如果不把扎到的刺取出来会怎样

What Happens If You Don't Take out a Splinter?

先做个选择吧 可能听上去会有些痛
Here’s a prickly choice for you
如果不得不做出选择的话
would you rather have a tiny shard of broken
你是希望指头被微小而锋利的玻璃碎片扎到
glass of stuck in your fingertip or a
还是被一小截木头扎到
little sliver of wood if you had to pick?
你大概会选择木头
You might prefer the wood right
毕竟木头更柔软、更自然
after all wood is softer and natural and glass
而玻璃边缘听上去就异常锋利
like nothing but sharp edges. So the fact
实际上
is as far as your immune system is
相比玻璃或金属碎片
concerned, splinters made of organic
有机物质的碎片会给免疫系统
matter can pose a bigger threat than a
造成更大的威胁
chip of glass or sliver of metal.
当然 一旦有外界物质进入皮肤
Of course when anything gets under your
我们身体的免疫系统就会对
skin your body’s immune system will
这样的侵入进行免疫反应
react to the invasion. The tissues around
伤口附近的组织就会产生炎症
the injury will get inflamed becoming
当血液和免疫细胞聚集到伤患处时
red and swollen as blood and immune
伤口就会发生红肿
cells rush to the site. But if it’s a big
但如果进入伤口的是木头碎片这样较大的物体
object like a splinter and the cells
免疫细胞无法将其破坏并赶出体外
can’t break it up and get it out, the
那么退而求其次 体内细胞会将其隔离
next best thing is to wall it off from
以免影响身体的其余部分
the rest of the body. White blood cells
体内的白细胞会把异物包围 形成一个屏障
will surround it forming a barrier known
也就是我们所说的“肉芽肿”
as a granuloma to keep it from going
防止异物进入到体内其他部位
anywhere. But glass and metals are
但玻璃和金属都是无机物
inorganic they’re not made from the
它们并非由生物组织所构成
tissue of a living thing so they won’t
所以它们并不会造成
cause as much of an inflammatory
像木头或刺那样
response as an organic object like a
强烈的炎症免疫应答反应
piece of wood or a thorn. If your
如果是玻璃碎片
splinter is a piece of glass as long as
只要它不是来自一烧杯炭疽杆菌什么的
it isn’t from like a beaker of anthrax
即使你没有马上把它从皮肤中取出
or something. It’s not the end of the
也不会有大问题
world if you can’t get it out right away
因为肉芽肿会将异物隔离
because the granuloma will just keep it
实际上 有时
blocked off. In fact doctors sometimes
医生也会建议
recommended leaving small pieces of
将小的玻璃碎片暂时保留
glass or metal inside of you
因为如果将异物强行取出
because it’s more damaging to your
可能会对伤口造成更大的伤害
tissue to dig around and get it out. But
但像木头碎片、仙人掌刺或其他植物的刺
organic materials like wooden splinters
这一类是有机物
cactus spines or plant thorns are more
会带来更大的麻烦
of a problem. These little so-and-so’s
这些小东西会让你的免疫系统产生更强烈的反应
cause a much bigger reaction from your
木头含有木油和树脂
immune system. Woods have oils and resins
你身体的免疫系统
in them that your cells recognized as
将其看作非常危险的物质
especially dangerous so they trigger
因此会引发更严重的炎症
more inflammation. They’re also more
伤口也更有可能染上
likely to be covered in all sorts of
各种有害的细菌和真菌
harmful bacteria and fungi, that’s why
正因如此人们需要打破伤风
people get tetanus shots to protect them
防止感染破伤风梭菌
from clostridium tetani, the bacterium
这种细菌造成了破伤风
that causes tetanus, a condition that can
破伤风会造成不受控制的全身性肌肉痉挛
cause uncontrolled muscle spasms
你可能会把破伤风
throughout your body. You might associate
和生锈的图钉联系起来
tetanus with like rusty nails but rust
但铁锈本身不会引发破伤风
doesn’t cause tetanus, it just gives the
它仅仅给细菌提供了一个天然温床
bacteria a nice home to live in. Organic
而有机物质 像土壤或动物排泄物
matter like soil and feces can also
也有可能携带这些细菌
Harbor the bacteria so if your skin is
所以如果你的皮肤被这些受到污染的物质扎破
punctured by anything that’s been
那会使你染病
contaminated with it it’ll make you sick.
另一种疾病“孢子丝菌病”
Another disease sporotrichosis more
更普遍的叫法是是玫瑰园丁病
commonly called rose gardeners disease
这种病由玫瑰刺上寄生的一种真菌所造成
is caused by a fungus that lives
可以让皮肤非常疼痛
on Rose thorns and can produce painful
像这种情况下
sores on your skin in cases like these
越来越多的白细胞
more and more white blood cells will
在伤口处参与形成肉芽肿
join the granuloma around the Splinter
试图避免伤口感染
to try to fight off the infection and in
有时 肉芽肿会变得异常地大
some cases the granuloma will get so big
不得不用手术才能将其摘除
they have to be surgically removed. So
因此 皮肤被玻璃碎片
sure having a sliver of broken glass or
或金属划伤
a metal shaving under your skin can be
可能会造成难以忍受的疼痛和折磨
incredibly painful and gross. But it
但事实却是 木头碎片所造成的伤口
turns out that splinters made of wood
从长期看来更加危险
might be more dangerous in the long run
每朵玫瑰都带刺
Every rose has its thorn but some of
但其中一些刺上的寄生真菌可能让你生病
them have fungi that will make you sick.
感谢提问
Thank you for asking and thanks
更感谢本节目的支持者和赞助人
especially to all of our patrons on
让我们能不断地回答这些问题
patron who keep these answers coming if
如果你想提问并获得解答
you would like to submit questions to be
你可以进入网页
answered you can go to
patreon.com/scishow
patreon.com/scishow and don’t forget to
也不要忘记登陆 youtube.com/scishow一个不错的网站
go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe to us. It’s great.

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视频概述

被玻璃碎片和一截木头扎破皮肤,哪个更危险?为什么木头更危险呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

王梓成

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDVq8jCPRwQ

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