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飞机被闪电击中了会怎样? – 译学馆
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飞机被闪电击中了会怎样?

What Happens If A Plane Gets Struck By Lightning?

这里有一条数据:平均每年只会有一架飞机被闪电击中
Here’s a statistic for you: the average plane gets struck by lightning about once a year.
因为人们真的需要另一个害怕坐飞机的理由
Because people really need another reason to be afraid of flying…
因为雷电几乎从不导致空难 至少不再会了
But lightning almost never causes plane crashes— at least, not anymore.
所以什么导致飞机在雷暴中这么安全呢?
So what makes planes so safe in thunderstorms?
这很大程度上与制作飞机的材料有关
Well, a lot of it has to do with what they’re made of.
飞机通常由铝等金属组成 但局部不是
Planes are usually made of metals like aluminum, and the ones with parts that aren’t,
而那些部分通常有金属框架或者或者(含金属)纤维外壳
usually have metal frames or fibers in their shells.
而金属是电的良好导体
And metals tend to be good conductors of electricity.
当导体之间没有任何大的缝隙 就像飞机的外壳
When conductors without any big gaps in them—like the outsides of planes—get hit by rapid
被闪电球那样快速爆发的电荷击中
bursts of charges like lightning bolts,
导体中的原子就会推动所有进入其中的电荷
the atoms in the conductor push all those incoming charges out onto the conductor’s
向表面移动 而不是使它们流动到内层
surface instead of letting them flow inside.
换而言之 闪电永远不会进入到机舱 也就是乘客 机组人员和喷气燃料所在的地方
In other words, lightning never makes it to the inside, where passengers and crew and jet fuel are.
它会被阻止在飞机的表面
It gets stopped by the plane’s surface.
这个过程被人们称为集肤效应 这也是你在车里可以避雷的原因
The process is known as the skin effect, and it’s also the reason you’re safe from lightning in a car.
一些人以为是轮胎的功劳 但是轮胎对于解决这个问题没有任何帮助
A lot of people think it’s the tires, but the tires have nothing to do with it.
这些都归功于车的金属外壳 它可以推送闪电向外
It’s all thanks to the metal shell of the car, which pushes the lightning to the outside
而不是把闪电引入你所在的车内
instead of letting it get to the inside where you are.
集肤效应是那么有效 以至于假如你在一个金属外壳厚度只有
The skin effect is so effective that you’d be completely safe inside a shell of aluminum
几毫米的东西里面 哪怕闪电直接打在外部 你都不会有事
just a few millimeters thick, even while lightning hit the outside.
但是尽管金属外壳意味着飞机是安全的
But even though the metal shell should mean that planes are safe,
闪电依然是过去常常导致空难的原因
lightning did used to cause plane crashes.
例如 回溯到1963年 闪电穿透了一架飞机的油箱并导致
Back in 1963, for example, lightning went through a plane’s fuel tank and caused an
爆炸 造成机上所有的81名乘客死亡
explosion that killed all 81 people on board.
所以事情变得糟了 尽管在集肤效应的帮助下
So things can still go wrong—even with the skin effect helping out.
闪电可以变得足够强 以至于它们可以直接在
Lightning can be powerful enough to punch holes straight through the thinner parts of
飞机上的薄弱部分上打出一个洞 比如在机翼和机头上
planes, like their wings or noses.
但是闪电给人造成的主要忧虑还不是小洞
But small holes aren’t the main concern when it comes to lightning.
飞机有很多电线和电子仪器 并且你可以大概的想一想
Planes have lots of wires and electrical instruments—and as you can probably imagine, sensitive electronics
敏感的电子器件在闪电穿过它们的时候 更易于变得乱七八糟
tend to go haywire if lightning goes through them.
但是工程师会在它们的错误中学习
But engineers have learned from their mistakes.
今天油箱经过了严厉的测试 以保证它们
Today’s fuel tanks are rigorously tested to make sure they have no problem withstanding
抵挡闪电没有任何问题
lightning bolts.
燃油在过去的十几年里 也有了改变
And the fuel itself has been changed over the last few decades so that it doesn’t
因此它现在不会在油箱中产生那么多易爆气体
produce as many explosive gases while in the tank.
所有在飞机上的仪器都被接地 它们与一些像飞机金属外壳的东西
All the instruments on board are also grounded by connecting them to something like the plane’s
连接 这摆脱了闪电中的额外电流
metal surface, which gets rid of extra current coming in from the lightning.
甚至在特别敏感的设备旁边 就像雷达 会有一些传导性的
There are even little strips or conductive sticks near especially sensitive equipment
小棍起到避雷针的作用 确保雷达不会直接被击中
like radar that act like lightning rods and make sure that the radar doesn’t get struck directly.
风暴也是飞机飞行过程中的危险领域
Storms are still dangerous places to fly for lots of reasons,
(引起飞机失事的原因)从风,雨,到气流紊乱
from wind and rain to air turbulence.
但是闪电不再是其中之一了
But at least lightning isn’t really one of them anymore.
感谢提问 如果你想要了解更多关于飞行安全的资讯
Thanks for asking, and if you want to learn more about in-flight safety, check out this
请观看这集 我们在其中解释了关于你在飞机上受到辐射的真相
episode where we explain the truth about the radiation you’re exposed to on a plane.

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