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如果地球上有个1毫米直径的小黑洞…… – 译学馆
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如果地球上有个1毫米直径的小黑洞……

What Happens If 1 mm Black Hole Appears On Earth?

著名天体物理学家奈尔•德葛拉司•泰森
Once, the famous astrophysicist Neil
曾尖锐指出 如果黑洞降临
de Grass Tyson put it briskly that if a black hole
太阳系将历劫
visits us, the solar system would have a badday.
毕竟 没有比被拆解成原子
After all, there is hardly anything worse
的能力更可怕的事了
than the ability to be broken into atoms.
但我们习惯想象黑洞在远方某处
But we are used to thinking that black holes are somewhere far away,
在宇宙中别的地方
in other parts of the universe.
但如果有个黑洞就出现在家门口
But what if one of them literally appearson our doorstep.
如果一个1毫米大小的“不速之客”
What happens if a “ uninvited guest ” with a size
来到地球附近会怎么样
of 1 mm “ settles ” near our Earth?
物理学家们在大型强子碰撞型加速器
Physicists asked a similar question in 2008,
于2008年启动时 问过相似的问题
when the Large Hadron Collider was launched.
那时包括霍金在内的很多科学家
Then, many scientists among whom was also Stephen Hawking,
害怕这个人类最伟大的发明会创造出大量
feared that this greatest invention of mankind could create a multitude
微型黑洞 它们可能会吞噬
of microscopic black holes that would swallow
周围的一切 而我们将不复存在
everything around and we would cease to exist… forever.
这些还远不是对撞机反对者们
Moreover, these are far from the only problems
提出的所有问题
that were predicted by the opponents of the collider.
不过这都是十年前的事了
However, more than 10 years have passed since then,
如果你还在看着视频
and if you are watching this video,
就表示大型强子碰撞型加速器
it means that the Large Hadron Collider
安静地工作着
works quietly away by itself
没有制造任何一丝能够毁灭地球的危险
and doesn’t create any dangerous pieces capable of destroyingthe Earth.
或者这种平静只是暂时的呢?
Or is that just for now?
实际上 要产生一个迷你黑洞
In fact, to produce a mini black hole,
需要的能量至少是我们的加速器能承受的
you need 1015 times more energy than the Large
当量的1015倍
Hadron Collider can withstand.
即使我们能够控制并使用如此巨量的能量
But even if we manage to use such a huge amount of energy,
来创造一个微型黑洞
to create a micro black hole
那还得能够在第四维空间里进行操作
we would need to work with the 4th dimension in space,
在当前四维空间的概念
which in this context isn’t particularly
还没能获得完善的研究和理解
well studied or understood.
假设我们奇迹般地
But suppose we miraculously manage to
在我们有限而又扭曲的三维空间里
create a microscopic black hole
成功创造了一个微型黑洞
in our limited and wretched 3D world.
那些想看世界末日的人马上要失望
I hasten to upset those who are looking forward to the apocalypse.
末日得延迟一段时间
It would have to be postponed for some time.
因为这种情况下
Because in this case,
迷你黑洞极可能瞬时间蒸发
the mini black hole is most likely to instantly evaporate, thanks
多亏了所谓的霍金辐射
to so-called Hawking radiation.
毕竟黑洞不仅吸收能量
After all, black holes not only absorb energy,
还辐射能量!所以
but also give it away! So,
大型强子碰撞型加速器完全不会构成威胁
the Large Hadron Collider does not threatenus at all.
至少
At least in any case,
到我们学会使用巨量能量并完全地
until the time we learn to use a large amount of energy and fully
探索第四维空间之前绝对不会 不过
explore the 4th dimension in space. However,
微观黑洞并不依赖大型强子碰撞型加速器
microscopic black holes can occur even without the Large Hadron Collider.
事实上数十亿的黑洞正遍布我们的星球
The fact is that right now billions of black holes pervade our planet! So,
那又怎么样呢?
what is happening?
我们要完蛋了吗?
Are we doomed,
地球会被神秘空间物体迅速撕成碎片吗?
and the earth would soon be torn apart into small pieces by mysterious,
放松啦 没有那么糟
space objects? Relax, it’s not so bad.
至少不是现在
At least for now…
毕竟 这成百上千万黑洞已经持续攻击我们
After all, our multi-million army of black holes has been attacking our
的地球母亲达数十亿年了!
home planet for billions of years!
同时
At the same time,
单个饕餮黑怪的质量能达到100吨
the mass of individual black voraciousness’s could reach up to 100 tons,
但它们不过一个原子大小!
but their size isn’t more than an atom!
如此小的直径对应着
Such a small diameter gives rise to a
同样小的视界 就是一条假设的线
correspondingly small “ event horizon ” —a hypothetical
超越这条线时空就会被扭曲
line beyond which space and time are bent,
物质开始被吸收并被撕裂成原子
and matter begins to be absorbed and torn apart by atoms.
因此
For this reason,
迷你黑洞甚至无法吞噬你餐桌上的细菌
the mini black hole can’t devour even the bacteria on your dining table.
即使它真的开始蚕食我们的地球母亲
But even if it starts to eat our home planet,
那也得花好长时间
it would take a very long time
得几十亿年吧
-several billion years in fact.
到那时 人类可能都已经灭绝了
By this time, humanity is likely to have become extinct,
或者已经在宇宙中找到了另一个
or else it would have found another
栖身之所
place of residence in the universe.
不过 还有一个顾虑 如果迷你黑洞的直径
However, if the diameter of a mini black hole
扩大到肉眼可见的程度
increases to a size visible to the naked eye
事情就完全不一样了
events would turn out completely differently.
我们不打算用奇妙的高等物理领域
We won’t baffle your brains with complex calculations
的复杂计算来迷惑你的脑瓜
from the strange world of higher physics,
不过根据计算
but according to calculations,
一个直径1毫米的黑洞将拥有
a black hole with a diameter of 1 mm would have
大于5个月亮的质量
a mass of more than five lunar masses combined,
也就是地球质量的11%
which is about 11 % of the Earth’s mass.
黑洞影响力的大小取决于它的位置
The scale of the influence of a black holedepends on where it is located
是在地球表面
on the surface of the earth,
还是在地心
or in the center of the planet
再或者比如在你讨厌的人的房间里
or for example, in the room of the guy you hate.
假设有一个1毫米大小的黑色的怪物
Suppose that a black monster, 1 mm in size,
正在地球的表面上
is located on the surface of the Earth.
黑洞的影响面
The sphere of influence of a black hole would be
将覆盖三分之一地球半径
about a third of the Earth’s radius,
约1320英里 合2124千米
about 1,320 miles (2124 kilometers).
这将引起可见的地球整体引力增长
This would lead to a noticeable increase in the overall gravity
并将对月球轨道产生影响
of the Earth, which in turn would affect the orbit of the moon.
它会偏离现有轨道
It would stray off the current course
开始进入椭圆轨道运动 但是
and begin to move into an elliptical orbit. But,
如果月球仅仅改变轨道但仍然保持运动
if the Moon only changes its course and remains alive,
另一种更糟糕的命运会降临到
another and more terrible fate
我们 以及一切靠近这个怪物的东西身上
would await us and all matter in close proximity to this monster.
如果我们离得近 就会被撕成碎片
If we were close, we would’ve been tornto pieces.
并且发生的过程非常迅速
And it would happen so quickly
连眨眼的时间都没有
that we wouldn’t even have time to blink an eye.
一旦在我们身边驻扎
Having settled with us,
黑洞会有意往地心移动
the black hole would purposefully move to the center of the Earth
没有任何人或事物能够阻挡
and nothing and no one can stop it.
没有了一般意义上的阻碍
Without common obstacles,
它会吸收一切东西 并在区区42分钟之内到达地球中心
it would absorb everything and reach the center of the Earth in just 42 minutes.
一个不知厌足的怪物将穿过地心
An insatiable monster passing through the core of the earth and
与此同时
in about the same time
它将到达地球另一侧的表面
it would reach the other side of the surface.
但黑洞也不会停止不动
But the black hole, too, wouldn’t standstill.
如果它的相对速度大于每秒12千米
If its relative speed is at least 12 km / s,
或每秒7.5公里 它就会沿着
or 7.5 miles / s, it would rotate around the
地球的引力面而旋转
Earth along with its sphere of gravitationalinfluence.
每转一圈 地球的质量都在丢失
With each circle, the earth would losemass.
黑洞就这样开始了它的饕餮之旅
Thus, the black hole would begin its meal:
吸收地壳和大部分地幔
absorbing the crust and most of the mantle.
那就意味着地球表面
It means our complete destruction and destruction of all life
所有生命彻底毁灭
on the surface of the Earth.
但在它吸收所有生命体之前
But before absorbing all living things,
黑洞显然会先把角落平整好
the black hole “ smoothes out the corners ”
显然是为了吃起来容易些
Apparently, to make it easier to eat.
因此气体会按照引力螺旋而扭曲
Thus, the gas would twist into a gravitational spiral,
就像做棉花糖时的糖一样
like sugar during the creation of cotton candy.
而地球会变成一个破碎的碟状热石头
And our planet would turn into just a broken disk of hot stone.
碟状的组成物质将产生很多热量
The material of the formed disk would produce a lot of heat
目前认为温度
It is assumed that it would have
可达到约六千开尔文
a temperature of six thousand Kelvin
正如地核温度
like the Earth’s core or
以及太阳表面温度
the surface of the Sun.
因为石碟会产生辐射 就像是把黑洞照亮
Because the disk would be radiating, as if highlighting a black hole.
那景象会十分震撼而诡异
It would be an amazing and at the same time eerie sight,
因为黑洞就像吸血鬼
because a black hole, like a vampire,
会吸收行星辐射的能量
would suck the radiance of its energyfrom the planet.
科学家们认为这个空间怪物要花50亿年
Scientists believe that the space monsterwould take 5 billion years
才能完全吃掉我们的地球家园
to finally eat our home planet.
在这期间 地球质量将急剧增加
During this time, the mass of the Earth wouldincrease significantly.
但我们熟悉的地球的形状将变得无法辨认
But the shape of the planet familiar to us would change beyond recognition.
大概会与传说中庞贝古城衰落的景象相似
It would probably be similar to the fall of the legendary Pompeii
也就是被炽热的岩浆埋没
which was wiped out by burning lava
只不过这次是宇宙级的
only on a cosmic scale.
只需花费数小时
In just a few hours,
美丽而生机勃勃的地球就会变成一片
the beautiful and densely populated Blue Planet would turn into
荒无人烟空间碎片
an uninhabited shred of space
只有崩塌的地壳岩浆和灼热的气体笼罩
where only the collapsing crust, lava and hot gases would reign.
当然地球不会消失得毫无痕迹
Naturally the disappearance of the Earth wouldn’t pass without a trace
小行星带会崩塌
the asteroid belt would collapse
会在太阳系内引发持续上百万年的
which would lead to frequent collisions for a million years
频繁碰撞
in the solar system.
这样的混乱中生命将无处安身
To complete chaos, there would be no place for life,
根本不可能存活
which simply becomes impossible.
目前为止这些都只是糟糕的假设和理论
So far these are only terrible assumptions and theories,
距离我们还很遥远
but they are still far from us.
无论如何 人类至少还能抢先
In any case, humanity still has a head start
50亿年的时间来建造诺亚方舟
in 5 billion years to build the Noah’s Ark
移民其它行星
and move to some other planet.
或许是移民其它星系
And maybe in another galaxy,
因为事实上
because it’s far from fact
太阳系也不能活那么久
that the Solar System can live for so long.
但现在 你可以毫无顾忌地任由
But for now, you can safely allow billions
数十亿迷你黑洞穿透你
of mini black holes to permeate you
而不用担心被粉碎成原子 不过
Without fear of breaking into atoms. Although…
想一想这画面倒挺壮观的!
it would look kind of spectacular!
如果你喜欢本视频
If you liked the video,
但还没有点赞或订阅本频道
give it your thumbs up and subscribe to our channel, if you have
请活动你的手指点赞订阅
not already done so.
点击铃铛持续接收新视频提醒!
Click on the bell to always receive notificationsabout new videos!
别忘了把我们介绍给你的朋友 独乐乐不如
Oh yeah, and don’t forget to your tell friends about us,
众乐乐!
more fun together!

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视频概述

如果黑洞出现在我们身边将会发生什么

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

袁佳珂

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2G_Jqz2ctlA

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