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心脏病发作时会发生什么?

What happens during a heart attack? - Krishna Sudhir

全球每年大约有七百万人死于心脏病发作
Approximately 7 million people around the world die from heart attacks every year,
引发心脏病或其他疾病(比如中风)发作的
and cardiovascular disease,
心脑血管疾病
which causes heart attacks and other problems like strokes,
是世界人口的首要杀手
is the world’s leading killer.
那么到底是什么造成了心脏病发作呢
So what causes a heart attack?
和身体其他肌肉一样 心脏也需要氧气
Like all muscles, the heart needs oxygen,
而当心脏病发作时心脏得不到足够的供氧
and during a heart attack, it can’t get enough.
脂肪沉淀物形成的动脉粥样硬化斑块
Fatty deposits, or plaques,
沉积在我们的冠状动脉壁上
develop on the walls of our coronary arteries.
冠状动脉则是负责向心脏供氧的血管
Those are the vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart.
血管里的硬化斑块会随着我们年龄一起增长
These plaques grow as we age,
但有时他们会变的过厚
sometimes getting chunky,
变硬
hardened,
或者发炎
or enflamed.
而最终 它们会形成血管阻塞
Eventually, the plaques can turn into blockages.
如果某块斑块破裂
If one of the plaques ruptures or cracks,
血块就会在它附近迅速凝结
a blood clot will form around it in minutes,
而原本有些堵塞的动脉就会被完全堵上
and a partially closed artery can become completely blocked.
血液没有办法流到心肌
Blood flow is cut off to the cardiac muscle
而心肌细胞则会因为缺氧而迅速死亡
and the oxygen-starved cells start to die within several minutes.
这就是心肌梗死
This is a myocardial infarction,
俗称心脏病发作
or heart attack.
如果得不到及时救治 情况则会迅速恶化
Things can rapidly deteriorate in the absence of treatment.
伤残的心脏则没有能力再给全身泵血
The injured muscle may not be able to pump blood as well,
心脏也不再规律跳动
and its rhythm might be thrown off.
最坏情况下 心脏病发作则会造成猝死
In the worst case scenario, a heart attack can cause sudden death.
那么要如何辨认出一个人是否正在心脏病发作呢
And how do you know that someone is having a heart attack?
心脏病最普遍的症状就是
The most common symptom is chest pain
由于心肌缺氧而造成的胸口疼
caused by the oxygen-deprived heart muscle.
病人会描述为类似心脏被碾压或者被牢牢揪住
Patients describe it as crushing or vice-like.
这种疼痛也会蔓延至左臂
It can radiate to the left arm,
下颚
jaw,
后背
back,
或者腹部
or abdomen.
但心脏病发作并不是总是像电影演的一样突然和剧烈
But it’s not always as sudden and dramatic as it is in the movies.
有些人则会犯恶心
Some people experience nausea
或者有呼吸短促
or shortness of breath.
女性和年长者身上的症状可能更为隐晦
Symptoms may be less prominent in women and the elderly.
对他们而言 虚弱和易疲劳可能都是信号
For them, weakness and tiredness may be the main signal.
令人意外的是 很多人 尤其是糖尿病患者
And surprisingly, in many people,
由于糖尿病会影响中枢神经传递痛觉
especially those with diabetes, which affects the nerves that carry pain,
他们心脏病发作时可能是悄无声息地
a heart attack may be silent.
如果你怀疑某人正心脏病发作
If you think that someone might be having a heart attack,
最重要的事情就是快速做出相应举措
the most important thing is to respond quickly.
如果你能便请呼叫救护车或急救中心
If you have access to emergency medical services, call them.
那是去医院的最快方法
They’re the fastest way to get to a hospital.
服用阿斯匹林能压缩红血球
Taking aspirin, which thins the blood,
而硝酸甘油可以扩张动脉
and nitroglycerin, which opens up the artery,
他们都可以帮助阻止心脏病发作进一步恶化
can help keep the heart attack from getting worse.
在急诊室 医生会诊断是否是心脏病发作
In the emergency room, doctors can diagnose a heart attack.
他们通常用的方法是心电图
They commonly use an electrocardiogram
来监测心脏的电流
to measure the heart’s electrical activity
和验血来检验心肌受损程度
and a blood test to assess heart muscle damage.
病患接下来会被送入尖端科技的“心脏专间”
The patient is then taken to a high-tech cardiac suite
在这里医生将会试图定位阻塞
where tests are done to locate the blockages.
心脏科专家可以通过使用气球加压来重新疏通堵塞的动脉
Cardiologists can reopen the blocked artery
这种方法叫做血管形成术
by inflating it with a balloon in a procedure called an angioplasty.
通常他们还会放入个金属或者复合物支架
Frequently, they also insert a metal or polymer stent
来帮助支撑起动脉
that will hold the artery open.
更严重的阻塞则需要通过心脏搭桥手术
More extensive blockages might require coronary artery bypass surgery.
心外科医生用一根身体某处的动脉或静脉血管来绕过堵塞的冠动脉
Using a piece of vein or artery from another part of the body,
重新建立起血液流通
heart surgeons can reroute blood flow around the blockage.
这种方法可以重新建立对心肌的供血
These procedures reestablish circulation to the cardiac muscle,
恢复心脏功能
restoring heart function.
心脏病的救治方法在不断的进步
Heart attack treatment is advancing,
但更关键的预防
but prevention is vital.
遗传因数和生活方式都会影响心脑血管疾病的几率
Genetics and lifestyle factors both affect your risk.
好消息是生活方式则是你可以掌控的
And the good news is that you can change your lifestyle.
锻炼 健康的饮食 和减肥
Exercise, a healthy diet, and weight loss
都可以降低心脏病发作的风险
all lower the risk of heart attacks,
无论你是否已经发展了心脏病
whether you’ve had one before or not.
医生推荐每周数次锻炼
Doctors recommend exercising a few times a week,
有氧运动和力量训练都要进行
doing both aerobic activity and strength training.
而有利于心脏健康的饮食则是低糖和低饱和脂肪酸
A heart-healthy diet is low in sugar and saturated fats,
因为这两者都和心脏病有直接联系
which are both linked to heart disease.
那么应该吃些什么呢
So what should you eat?
大量的蔬菜纤维
Lots of fiber from vegetables,
用鸡肉鱼肉来代替红色肉类
chicken and fish instead of red meat,
全谷和坚果类 像是杏仁和核桃
whole grains and nuts like walnuts and almonds
都有利于健康
all seem to be beneficial.
一个好的饮食习惯和运动计划也会帮助保持健康体重
A good diet and exercise plan can also keep your weight in a healthy range,
而健康的体重同样会降低心脏病的风险
which will lower your heart attack risk as well.
当然 药物治疗也同样会帮助预防心脏病发
And of course, medications can also help prevent heart attacks.
例如医生通常会开些低剂量的阿斯匹林
Doctors often prescribe low-dose aspirin, for example,
尤其是给那些已经有过心脏病发作
particularly for patients who’ve already had a heart attack
和有较高发作风险的病患们
and for those known to be at high risk.
用药物控制心脏病的风险因素们
And drugs that help manage risk factors,
像是高血压 高血脂和糖尿病
like high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes,
也都同样会降低心脏病发的概率
will make heart attacks less likely, too.
虽然心脏病是常见疾病但它并不是不可避免的
Heart attacks may be common, but they don’t have to be inevitable.
一个健康的饮食
A healthy diet,
戒烟
avoiding tobacco use,
保持身体健康
staying fit,
睡眠充足和笑口常开
and enjoying plenty of sleep and lots of laughter
都将长远地帮助你身体里最重要的一块肌肉
all go a long way in making sure your body’s most important muscle
继续跳动
keeps on beating.

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视频概述

心脑血管疾病是世界上首屈一指的致死因素。本视频以图解的方法深入浅出的介绍了心脏病发作背后的原理,心脏病发的症状,急救方法,和最重要的,如何预防心脏病

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刘致富

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_PYnWVoUzM

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