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失踪的苏联宇航员们到底经历了什么? – 译学馆
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失踪的苏联宇航员们到底经历了什么?

What Happened to the Lost Soviet Cosmonauts?

The idea of phantom cosmonauts,
幽灵宇航员
cosmonauts who flew before Yuri Gagarin but died in space,
指的是在尤里•加加林之前就已飞入太空却未生还
so their deaths were covered up by the Soviet Union
其死亡的消息因此被苏联政府所掩盖的宇航员
is such a fascinating idea.
这种说法是极具吸引力的
Unfortunately, they’re not real.
遗憾的是 幽灵宇航员不是真实存在的
But the story of how we came to think they’re real
但是我们是怎样将这些说法信以为真的呢?
is pretty compelling in itself.
这个过程非常扣人心弦
The idea of phantom cosmonauts comes from
幽灵宇航员的说法起源于
a very real mystery surrounding the early Soviet space program.
跟前苏联太空项目有关的一个真实谜团
In the 1960s,
在20世纪60年代
missions weren’t announced until they were literally leaving the earth.
除非宇航员真正离开地球 否则不会将任务报道出来
And if a mission failed, it would be given a different designation
如果一项任务失败 它将被赋予一个不同的名称
to hide the fact that was part of an actual program.
来掩盖其属于某实际项目的事实
Reports that reach the West were often of missing details or were misinterpreted.
传到西方的报道经常缺失细节或者具有误导性
So no one really knew the true story.
所以没有人真正知道真相
This all led to a list of names that appeared in the late 1950s
这就导致20世纪50年代末出现了一份名单
and no one could confirm whether these were cosmonauts who were trained to fly
没人能够确定名单上的宇航员是在训练飞往太空
or cosmonauts who had already died in space,
还是早已经死于太空
and thus the mysteries began.
这样 谜团就产生了
In 1958, reports reached the United States
1958年 有消息传到美国
that a Soviet pilot had flown on a suborbital flight to 186 miles,
说是一位苏联飞行员在亚轨道飞行中飞了186英里
which definitely qualifies a space flight.
这确实可以算是太空飞行了
The report turned out to be false.
事后证明这则消息是假的
It was part of a radio broadcast,
这则消息属于电台广播的一部分
much like the Orson Welles broadcast of War of the Worlds.
就像奥森·威尔士广播的《世界大战》一样
It just confused people and made people believe that
它就是用来迷惑人们的 并且有时故事明明是假的
story was real when it wasn’t.
它也会让人们相信故事是真的
But there was some truth in the story.
但是故事里也有一些真实成分
It turned out that a Soviet pilot had actually flown a suborbital mission.
事实证明确实有一位苏联飞行员执行了亚轨道飞行任务
But remember that a suborbital mission could be like an X-15 flight,
但要记住 这次亚轨道飞行任务就像X-15飞行那样
just releasing going up and then coming back down.
仅仅只是上升 然后下降
But validity to the story came from some pretty trustworthy sources,
但是故事的真实性是由一些十分可靠的消息来源证实的
specifically Hermann Oberth,
尤其是Hermann Oberth
who said that he had heard of the true story
他说自己听过这个故事的真实版本
of a Soviet pilot on a suborbital flight,
那就是苏联飞行员曾在亚轨道飞行
didn’t say what kind of vehicle it was in,
但没有说是用的哪种载体
who had been killed on the mission.
这名飞行员因任务失败而死于太空
So this opened up the idea that this was the Soviet Union’s first cosmonaut flight
所以从此便流传苏联首位宇航员的飞行任务
that had failed miserably and they were covering up his death.
悲惨地失败了 苏联政府掩盖了他的死亡真相
Stories took off in 1959 when America met its Mercury astronauts
当美国1959年完成首次水星飞行时 谣言就开始散布开来
and started looking for evidence of an equivalent program in the Soviet Union.
并开始寻找苏联同样项目的证据
Details were far and few between, many coming from unreliable sources.
细节非常少 许多来源并不可靠
But gradually, the West learned that the Soviet Union was training a class of cosmonauts.
逐渐地 西方认识到苏联正在训练一批宇航员
However, they didn’t really know who they were, or what they were doing, or where they were.
但是 西方并不知道他们是谁 在训练什么 在哪里训练
Nevertheless, a sketchy picture emerged of a Soviet space program
然而 某个苏联太空项目的一张素描照片出现了
with three World War Ⅱ veterans training as cosmonauts.
上面显示有三名二战老兵正在接受宇航员训练
They were named Belokonev, Kachur and Grachev.
他们的名字是Belokonev, Kachur和Grachev
A fourth cosmonaut, whose name was never known,
第四名宇航员的名字却不得而知
was rumored to have been killed in a training accident.
传言他在一次训练事故中丧生
That lost cosmonaut reappeared in the month that followed.
但那名失踪的宇航员却在下一个月神奇出现
A weekly Russian magazine showed an image of
一份苏联的周刊杂志展示了一张照片
doctors, technicians and subjects all working on a life-support system.
里面有医生 技师和研究对象 都在研究生命支持系统
There were three men in the image:
照片里有三个人
the real Belokonev, Kachur and Grachev.
那是真实存在的Belokonev, Kachur和Grachev
But the absence of the fourth seemed to solidify the existence of a dead man.
第四个人的缺席似乎证实了一个死人的存在
Western reports assumed that the image showed real training facilities
西方报道认为这张照片展示了真实的训练设施
and that the men were real cosmonaut trainees,
并且那些人都是真实存在的宇航学员
which added more validity to the stories.
这就更增添了故事的真实性
The rumors got another boost in 1961.
1961年 谣言再一次升级
On February 4th, the Soviets announced the imminent launch of a 7-ton Sputnik.
2月4日 苏联宣布即将发射一枚重达7吨的人造卫星
Western specialists listened to the launch
西方专家仔细听了发射过程
and heard it sounded like moaning kind from the spacecraft.
听到好像从飞船里传来类似呻吟的声音
The signal of a human heartbeat
收到了人类心跳
and Russian translated through Morse code.
和苏联人用摩斯密码对其进行转译的信号
It all sounded like the man was dying.
这听起来都像在表明有一个人在濒临死亡
And right at the moment when staging should have occurred on the launch,
就在本应进行飞船发射的时候
the heartbeat stopped and the transmission ended.
飞船上的人停止了心跳 传输也随之终止
Was it a lost cosmonaut?
是那个失踪的宇航员吗?
Or was it suspicious that that transmission was done on a frequency
传输使用的是无线电业余爱好者可以轻易获取的频率
that was very easily accessible to amateur radio operators?
这一点也令人生疑
It could have been a trick or it could have been a test of a system.
这可能是一个恶作剧 或是某种系统测试
Nevertheless, it fueled this idea of lost cosmonauts that were being covered up by the Soviet Union.
然而 这使得被苏联掩盖的失踪宇航员的说法愈演愈烈
More phantom launches followed.
更多的幽灵发射随之而来
On April 9th, the day before Gagarin was originally scheduled to fly,
4月9日 本来是加加林计划飞行的前一天
the British Communist newspaper The Daily Worker reported that
据英国共产党报纸《每日工人报》报道
Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Sergeyevich Ilyushin
陆军中校Vladimir Sergeyevich Ilyushin
had launched into orbit on April 7th or 8th, circled the earth 3 times.
已经在4月7日或8日进入轨道 绕地球飞行了3圈
But then his spacecraft malfunctioned.
但随后 他的飞船出现了故障
Some technical mishap had brought him back from space deranged.
一些技术故障迫使他从太空错乱中返航
He was now unfit to show the world,
他当时已经不适合抛头露面
and was hidden, and his accomplishments swept under the rug.
他被隐藏了起来 他的功绩也无人知晓
He wasn’t.
事实却并非如此
There was a real illusion,
这里面存在一种真实的错觉
but he was a pilot who never joined the cosmonaut training program.
但他是一名从未参加过宇航员训练项目的飞行员
Another strange rumor emerged from within the Soviet space program itself.
另一个奇怪的谣言出自苏联太空项目本身
A severely burned man was brought to the care of Dr. Vladimir Golyakhovsky in March of 1961,
1961年3月 一个严重烧伤的人被带到Vladimir Golyakhovsky医生这里照料
under the name of Sergeyev Ivanov.
当时那人名叫Sergeyev Ivanov
He was thought to be maybe a killed cosmonaut,
他被认为是受伤致死的宇航员
and he was, sort of.
他某种程度上也确实是
The man was actually Valentin Bondarenko
这个人其实是Valentin Bondarenko
who had been killed when a fire broke out in a pure oxygen environment during a test.
他在某项实验的一个纯氧环境中 因发生火灾而死亡
As though to add more fuel to the fire of rumors,
就像给谣言火上浇油一样
Bondarenko’s death was hushed up.
Bondarenko的死被隐瞒了下来
In the 1970s,
20世纪70年代
images of the Soviet space program from just a decade earlier started to emerge.
苏联太空项目的照片从十年前开始出现
That only fueled the rumors more,
这使得谣言更加甚嚣尘上
because they were all strangely doctored.
因为这些照片都被奇怪地加工过
They were images showing cosmonauts either in training or on vacation.
这些照片显示宇航员不是在训练就是在度假
And in some images, men seemed to be missing.
在有些照片中 一些人似乎消失了
They were not phantom cosmonauts.
他们不是幽灵宇航员
They were not men who had died in space
他们不是命丧太空的人
and so had to be removed from the history books.
所以不得不将他们从历史书中删除
Instead, they were cosmonaut trainees who didn’t behave well.
相反 他们是表现不好的宇航学员
They had bad reputations and were deemed poor role models for kids growing up,
他们名声不好 被视为孩子成长的坏榜样
that their likenesses were removed from images.
所以他们的形象被从照片中删除
The only reason we know that these images have been doctored
我们知道这些照片被加工过的唯一原因
was because mission and program managers didn’t remember
是因为任务和项目的管理者并不记得
which version of the images had been released,
照片的哪个版本已经公开发布
the original, or the one with this guy taken out,
是最初的版本 或是这个人被删除的版本
or with that guy taken out.
或是那个人被删除的版本
And eventually, historians got really interested
最后 历史学家对此非常感兴趣
and started putting together all the images
开始把所有的图片放在一起
to figure out who had been taken out, when and why.
尝试破解谁被删除了 在什么时候 原因是什么
If you like this video, guys,
如果你喜欢这个视频
please be sure to subscribe, so you’ll never miss an episode.
请一定要订阅 这样你就不会错过每集视频
And if you want Vintage Space between videos,
如果你想要观看《经典太空》的视频
be sure to follow me on social media.
请在社交媒体上关注我
I’m on Facebook, Twitter and on Instagram.
我在脸书 推特和Ins都有账号
As always, thank you so much for watching and I’ll see you guys next time.
像往常一样 非常感谢你的观看 下次再见

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视频概述

揭秘苏联宇航员们不为人知的故事!

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

三十四

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIgUKd5o8Hw

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