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太阳能木星探测器朱诺号发生了什么? – 译学馆
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太阳能木星探测器朱诺号发生了什么?

What Happened to the Juno Spacecraft?

今年初 NASA的朱诺号经过数年的太空飞行抵达了木星
Earlier this year, NASA’s Juno spacecraft made it to Jupiter after years of hurtling through space
准备开始它长达2年的使命
all ready to begin its 2-year-long mission.
朱诺号于7月4日进入这颗气态行星的轨道
Juno settled into an orbit around the gas giant by the 4th of July,
并于8月27日第一次成功完成所有设备的试飞
and on August 27th, its first flyby with all the scientific instruments on went without a hitch.
但从第一次测试成功后 事情再没那么顺利了
But since that initial pass, things haven’t gone so smoothly.
就在第二次飞越之前 飞船进入了安全模式并且无法记录任何数据
Right before its second flyby, the spacecraft went into safe mode and couldn’t record any data.
另外 与发动机有关的问题导致任务团队取消了两次轨道演习
Plus, an engine-related issue caused the mission team to cancel an orbital maneuver two times,
同时也将有关此次事故的收集的资料发送回来
which has set back data collection as well.
但是在上周 该项目的首席科学家宣布 他们大致上能解决有关安全模式的问题
But last week, the lead scientist on the mission announced that they can at least fix the safe mode issue.
现在 朱诺正处于环绕木星的椭圆轨道上
Right now, Juno is in an elliptical orbit around Jupiter, passing close enough to the
并以每53.4天的周期接近木星表面 透过木星外层大气去一探木星真容
surface once every 53.4 days to take a peek under its outer cloak of clouds.
在每次靠近 朱诺距离木星云层上方仅4200千米
During each pass, Juno gets as close as about 4,200 kilometers above the uppermost gases.
朱诺八项科学仪器都被设计用于了解木星的
Each of Juno’s eight scientific instruments is designed to help us learn what Jupiter’s
构造和它可能形成的原因
made of and how it might have formed.
大量的任务就包括收集有关木星大气和极光的信息
A lot of this involves collecting information about Jupiter’s atmospheric gases and auroras,
极光是由高能粒子与气体原子碰撞产生的光学现象
which are light shows caused by energetic particles colliding with gas atoms.
原本 航天器的任务科目中计划有36次的资料收集的定点飞行
Originally, there were 36 data-collection flybys planned over the course of the mission.
但是不幸的是 这遭遇到一些挫折
But, unfortunately, there have been some setbacks.
正好在十月十九日朱诺的第二次接近之前,一个问题的出现导致航天器进入到安全模式
Right before Juno’s second approach on October 19th, a problem sent the spacecraft into what’s called safe mode.
它的电脑重启 并进行要调整以面向太阳
Its computer rebooted, it reoriented to face the Sun to make sure its solar arrays got
确保它的太阳电池翼尽可能多接受到能量 同时它的科学仪器停止工作 以至于它
as much power as possible, and its instruments shut off so it couldn’t collect data during
它在十月二十四日退出安全模式之前的黄金时间都无法收集信息
this prime time – until it exited safe mode again on October 24th.
问题出在飞船上某个仪器的软件上
[jeer-um] The issue was a software problem with one
这个仪器叫做:木星极光红外成像仪(JIRAM)
of the instruments on board: the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper, or JIRAM.
它主要用数个传感器来研究木星极光的构成和活动
Basically, it uses couple of sensors to study the composition and movement of Jupiter’s
用红外线相机探测不同水平的热度
auroras – an infrared camera, which detects different levels of heat, and a spectrometer,
用分光仪探测可视光
which detects visible light.
设备本身并没有全坏 但是数据传输方面有问题
The instrument itself wasn’t completely broken, but it was having trouble transferring
数据传不到朱诺的主脑 这需要一个软件补丁来修复
data to Juno’s main computers and needed a software patch.
美国航天局的工程师正在修复 但对于上个星期的飞近探测 团队决定
NASA engineers are working on it, but for last week’s flyby, the mission team decided
用低技术的手段解决问题并且关掉了JIRAM
to go low-tech with their solution and just turn JIRAM off – and data collection went
和数据收集器就好了
just fine.
他们希望所有设备的漏洞都被补上 在二月份的飞近探测上 能够使用
They hope to have all instruments patched up and operational for the early February flyby.
但是朱诺的另外一些问题还没有修复好
But the other issue with Juno doesn’t have a fix yet.
10月份已经临近 飞行器应该进入一个新时期
During the October approach, the spacecraft was supposed to do what’s called a period
这个时期称为复位 或者PRM
reduction maneuver, or PRM.
这一时期朱诺号应点燃一下主发动机使其更靠近木星
It was supposed to ignite its main engine for a bit to get a little cozier with Jupiter,
将它的环绕周期由53天减为14天
reducing the time it took to orbit from about 53 days to 14.
但是在执行这项计划之前 任务团队发现两个给引擎
But before executing the maneuver, the mission team discovered that two valves that control
供应氦气的阀门的操作速度比原计划慢很多
the helium supply to the engine were operating a lot slower than they should have – taking
使引擎启动要花费几分钟而不是几秒钟
minutes to open instead of seconds.
关于上周的飞行 他们仍未查明如何改善这种情况
As of last week’s flyby, they still haven’t figured out how to improve the performance,
因此他们还没有完成PRM
so they haven’t done the PRM.
尽管存在着这些挫折 我们至今收集到的数据和图像都非常有用处
Despite these setbacks, the data and images we have collected so far are really useful.
NASA的工程师们更擅长解决棘手的问题 因此希望他们很快能解决
NASA engineers tend to be pretty good at solving tricky problems, so hopefully they can fix
并使朱诺号在余下的任务期间保持最佳状态
these ones soon and get Juno in tip-top shape for the rest of its mission.
距离小行星带更近一点 科学家们也在进行
A little closer to home in the asteroid belt, scientists are also making discoveries about
关于矮行星Ceres表面的研究
the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres.
之前的研究已经找到了它的表面有水的证据 比如水蒸气云层
Previous studies have found evidence of water on its surface, like water vapor clouds and
和某些特定区域的冰块
some patches of water ice in certain places.
但是两个独立的研究队伍在这颗矮行星上找到了更多的冰 并且发表了
But two separate teams of researchers found a lot more ice on this dwarf plant, and reported
他们的发现在上周的《自然航天和科学》杂志上
their findings in Nature Astronomy and Science last week.
这两支队伍都引用了来自NASA的黎明号飞船的数据 黎明号目前正环绕Ceres轨道
Both of these teams used data from NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, which is currently in orbit
飞行 来拍照并向地球的科学家发回信息
around Ceres, to take images and send information back to scientists on Earth.
其中一支队伍关注来自矮行星北部火山口的图像 来寻找埋藏在
One team focused on images of the dwarf planet’s northern craters, to look for patches of ice
暗处阴影里的冰块
lurking in the dark shadows.
这些火山口被称为冷井 因为它们很少暴露在阳光下
These kinds of craters are called cold traps, because they’re barely exposed to sunlight,
并且温度真的很低–比零下160摄氏度还低
and stay really chilly – I’m talking less than minus 160 degrees Celsius.
我们在蒙大拿时的天气并不好 但这样更好
We have not been having great weather here in Montana – but it’s preferable to that.
研究人员在其中的10个火山口中 发现了亮点
The researchers discovered bright spots in ten of these craters, which computer models
计算机模型显示其可能是大块冰反射的亮光
suggest could be water ice reflecting light.
并且来自黎明号的分光仪数据肯定了 至少它们中的一个是大块冰
And spectrometer data from Dawn have confirmed that at least one of them is water ice for sure.
但是他们不确定这些大块冰来自哪里 是否来自太空矮行星
But they’re not sure where this water ice came from – whether it was from rocks crashing
的撞击 或者是Ceres的外壳
into the dwarf planet from space, or from Ceres’s crust.
因为它证明了在岩石多孔的表面上 到处都有很多的冰
Because it turns out that there’s a lot of ice everywhere on the rocky porous surface,
根据第二队的调查
according to the second team’s research.
基于来自γ射线和中子探测器在黎明号上的数据
Based on data from the gamma ray and neutron detector, or GRaND, on the Dawn spacecraft,
它们发现在Ceres的表面上有许多的氢气
they found that there’s a lot of hydrogen on Ceres’s surface.
当中子和氢原子相互作用 他们就会减慢 所以格兰德发现少量
When neutrons interact with hydrogen atoms, they slow down, so GRaND detects fewer neutrons
来自矮行星上这些点的中子
coming from those spots on the dwarf planet.
并且在Ceres上 氢可能是在冰的形成中水的标志
And on Ceres, hydrogen is probably a sign of H2O, in the form of ice.
所以现在我们知道了 Ceres上遍布了大块冰
So now we know: there’s water ice all over Ceres.
我突然想去滑冰
And suddenly I’m in the mood to go ice skating.
感谢你们观看这期太空SciShow
Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space.
如果你想每周都获得更多的太空新闻 你可以上油管的scishowspace
If you want more space news every week, you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe
并且关注我们 如果你想要更多个人的SciShow 我们会在NerdCon: 2月25 26号
and if you want more SciShow /in person/ we’ll be at NerdCon: Nerdfighteria in Boston on
波士顿的Nerdfighteria
February 25 and 26th.
搜索nerdconnerfighteria.com来获得更多的信息
Check out nerdconnerdfighteria.com to learn more.

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视频概述

太阳能木星探测器朱诺号发生的传输问题以及其他问题 造成的原因与解决方案 探索与研究 Ceres矮行星

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8vSOrPnVqs

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