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胡蜂的专属育儿室 – 译学馆
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胡蜂的专属育儿室

What Gall! The Crazy Cribs of Parasitic Wasps | Deep Look

许多动物在橡树上搭建自己的家
Plenty of animals build their homes in oak trees,
但让橡树完全主动干活
but it’s another thing entirely to get the oak
为你建造一个家
tree to do all the work.
就是另一回事了
To build your house for you.
假如你是一棵橡树 站在那里好好的
Say you’re an oak tree, just sitting there minding
突然这只小胡蜂来了
your own business, when suddenly this tiny wasp comes along.
她说 你好 你能给我将要出生
She says hey, why don’t you build me
的宝宝们盖一座育婴房吗?
a nursery for these baby wasps I’m about to have?
接着 她把卵注入了你的皮下
And then she injects her eggs under your skin.
你就会发现自己正在建造一种
You find yourself creating an entirely new structure, one
全新的结构 这是你从没做过的
you would have never built for yourself.
这是什么 你也许会说 虫瘿!
What nerve, you might say, what gall!
你说对了
And you’d be right.
这个东西 这个寄生蜂的屋子 它被叫做虫瘿
This thing, this parasitic wasp house, it’s called a gall.
一棵树上可能会有几十种类型的虫瘿
There can be dozens of types of galls on a single tree,
每一个虫瘿都对应一种特定的胡峰
each one built to order for a specific species of wasp.
它们被叫做虫瘿生胡峰
They’re called gall-inducing wasps,
这些虫瘿一个比一个更奇怪更炫丽
and each gall is weirder and more flamboyant than the next.
有时侯这些胡蜂更喜欢可移动房屋
Sometimes the wasps prefer a mobile home.
这被叫做跳虫瘿
This one is called a jumping gall.
它从树上落下
It falls from the tree and bounces
墨西哥跳豆一样在地上跳来跳去
across the ground like a Mexican jumping bean
直到它找到一个安全的地点孵化幼虫
until it finds a safe place to hatch.
作为防御掠食者的保护罩
As a protection against predators,
虫瘿尝起来意想不到的苦
galls can taste incredibly bitter, bitter
像胆囊里的胆汁一样苦
like the bile produced by a gallbladder.
事实上 早期的医生相信 生气和愤怒
In fact, the earliest doctors believed being bitter and angry
反映了体内的虫瘿过多
meant an excess of gall in the body.
无论如何 回归大树的主题
Anyway, back to our tree.
幼虫在虫瘿里发育成熟
Inside the gall, the larvae mature and develop,
在它成长的同时释放出化学物质
and as they grow they release chemicals
来告诉树如何建造虫瘿
that tell the tree how to build the gall.
树木就会上当将营养汇入
The tree is tricked into funneling nutrients
虫瘿以喂养饥饿的胡蜂幼虫
into the gall to feed the hungry wasp larvae.
科学家称之为生理槽
Scientists call this a physiologic sink.
对于幼虫来说就像住在一个巨大的香蕉里
For the larvae, it’s like living inside a giant banana,
拥有无尽的食物供应
an endless supply of food.
但这样的平静持续不了多长时间
But the peace and quiet don’t last long.
那些免费的食物开始吸引许多不请自来的客人
All that free food starts attracting uninvited guests.
原来的胡蜂自己变成了
That original wasp itself becomes
另外一些寄生蜂的宿主 这被称为拟寄生物
a host for another set of wasps, called parasitoids.
在英国的一项研究发现了17种不同种类的蜂
One study in the UK found 17 different wasp species
生活在同一个虫瘿中
living in one gall.
那橡树呢?
But the oak tree?
它活得好好的 在大多情况下 这些住在树枝及叶子上面
It does just fine, in most cases unharmed by the tiny rivalries
住在小房子里面的微小竞争者并不会伤害它
in tiny houses on its branches and its leaves.

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视频概述

寄生很常见,但让宿主为你建造一座房子就不容易了。我们来看看胡峰是怎么办到的

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收集自网络

翻译译者

AF

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审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOgP5NzcTuA

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