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对于大学,你知道多少? – 译学馆
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对于大学,你知道多少?

What every student should know about university

一口心理学
BITE SIZE PSYCH
想象一下 你是一个雄心勃勃的青少年
Let’s imagine, you’re an ambitious teenager,
刚从高中毕业出来
who’s fresh out of high school.
你的目标是有份成功的事业
Your goal is to have a successful career.
怎样才能最大限度地增加你成功的几率
What’s the best way to maximize your chance of achieving this goal?
正确的答案是上大学
The correct answer is to go to university.
现在看来 我知道这条路听起来过时了
Now, I know this path sounds outdated,
特别是当今上大学学费如此高昂
especially when universities are so expensive
以及你可以在网上免费获取一切其他学习资源
and when you have all these other learning resources online for free.
但实际上 这条路现在是最合适不过了
But in reality, this path has never been more fitting.
因为现在 拥有学士学历的人们
Because right now, people who have a bachelor’s degree
比高中毕业的人多挣60%
earn 60% more than high school finishers.
一生中多挣了70,000美元
That’s an extra $700,000 over the course of a lifetime.
并且这个差距只会变得更大
And this gap is only set to get larger.
他们失业的几率也是别人的三分之一
They are also 3 times less likely to be unemployed,
对工作的满意度也更高
and they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs too.
为什么有那么多人抱怨学历无用呢?
Why there are so many people complaining about degrees being useless?
为什么他们认为学位教育只教书本型聪明人
Why are they thought to only teach book smarts
而忽视了实际生活技能?
and neglect real life skills?
不过 这些也不是毫无根据的指责
These are baseless accusations either.
一个围绕300个学科的元分析调查发现
One meta-analysis of around 300 studies found,
人们的教育水平
there was only a low correlation
与他们工作表现
between the person’s education level
仅有很小的相关性
and how well they perform on their jobs.
因此 上大学是否值得呢?
So, is university worth it or not?
要弄清这个问题
To figure this out,
我们首先要明白
we firstly have to understand
大学毕业生在人生中表现得更好
the real reason why university graduates
的真正原因
are doing so much better in life.
大学希望你去思考
The universities would like you to think
这是因为学生在大学里学到了技能
it’s because students are taught skills
这些技能在就业市场上很有用途
which are valuable in the job market.
但是 故事和经验表明
But both anecdotally and empirically,
事实并非如此
this just isn’t happening.
例如 IT 学历
For example, consider a degree in IT.
有调查向近40,000名程序员提问:
One survey of around 40,000 programers asked
你们是从哪里学习技能的?
“Where did you learn your skills?”.
至今 最普遍的答案是
And by far, the most common response was
我是自学的
“I learnt it myself.”,
69%的人表示
with 69% of people claiming
他们是部分或完全自学
to be either partly or fully self-taught.
第二最普遍答案是 职业培训
The next most common answer was “On the job training”.
而且 只有培训后 人们才承认他们的计算机学历
And only after did people acknowledge their Bachelor in Computer Science.
实际上 将近3/5的程序员
In fact, around 3/5 of programers
甚至没有IT学历
didn’t even have an IT degree.
显然 大学对于学习过程不是必不可少的
Clearly, universities aren’t that essential to the process of learning.
同样 纵观学历教育
Also, take a look at a degree in education.
令人惊讶但是 在超过170份研究中
It’s surprising that out of 170 studies,
仅有9%的研究发现
only 9% found that
拥有更高等大学教育水平的老师
teachers with higher university education
在教学表现更出色
were better at teaching.
大多数研究发现没有影响
The majority of them found “no effect”,
有一些甚至发现有点消极影响
and some of them even found a slightly negative effect.
这意味着 学士以及硕士学历
This means that both bachelor’s and master’s degree
与提高教师质量没有多大关系
don’t do much to improve the quality of teachers.
当然 也有例外
Sure there are exceptions.
例如 工作与数学有更多相关的老师
For example, teachers who’ve had more math-related course work
教数学会教得更好
are better at teaching math.
他们的学生在数学测验中分数更高 从这一点可以看出
You can see this because their students score higher in math tests.
但是 同一文章表示
But the same paper that said that
英语 历史和科学没有类似迹象表明这一点
found no such evidence for English, history or science.
所以 一些学位可能会教授一些技巧
So, while this degree might teach some skills,
但大多数是没用的
by a large it’s quite useless.
但现在 我不打算继续并说
Now, I’m not going to go on and say that
医学学历是毫无用处的
a medical degree is also completely useless.
然而不幸的是 以这课程设立的方式来看
But unfortunately, with the way that the course is set up,
很大一部分是这样的
a large portion of it is.
特别是本科学历
Specifically that undergraduate degree
你必须在进入医学院前完成
you must complete before you enter medical school,
这学历可进入任何你想要的领域
this degree can be in any field you want,
但要最大利用它
but to make the most of it,
大多学生学习生物医药
most students study bio-medicine,
因此他们基本有些基础知识
so they have some sort of foundational knowledge.
有些学生尽管获得了完全不相关的学历
Some students, though, will get a degree in something completely unrelated
例如电影研究或政治科学
like film studies or political science.
但到最后 无论你是选择生物医药还是电影研究
But in the end, whether you choose bio-medicine or film study,
都没什么差别
it makes no difference.
研究显示
As research shows,
两组同学会在第三年的临床考试中得到同样的分数
both groups of students will score equally on the clinical exams by 3rd year,
实习期间 监督员给他们打的分数也一样
both groups will also be scored equally by their supervisors during internship.
实际上 在学校里取得高分
In fact, getting a high GPA in undergraduate years
仅是对学生将来在医院的临床技能的预测
is barely predicitve of a student’s later clinical skills in hospital.
并且 除非你取得高分
And yet, medical schools won’t let you in
否则你不能进入医学院
unless you have one.
所以 再强调一次 如果这些学历教不了你任何东西
So, once again, if these degrees aren’t teaching you anything,
是什么给学历持有者巨大的优势?
what gives degree holders their huge advantage?
答案就是信号理论
The answer lies in signalling theory,
该理论获得了2001年的诺贝尔经济学奖
a theory which won the 2001 Nobel Prize for Economics.
它认为学历本身不具有很大价值
It states that while a degree itself isn’t worth a lot,
学历对他人发出的信号才具有价值
what it signals to others is.
看 一个优秀的雇主了解学历是空洞的
See, a good recruiter knows that degrees are hollow
学历不能真正为毕业生的工作做好准备
they don’t really prepare graduates for the job.
但是 有数百个潜在的应聘者
But with potentially hundreds of applicants,
他们需要快捷的方式区分好雇员与坏雇员
they need a quick way to separate a good employee from a bad one.
他们不能用智商测试 除非他们想被起诉
They can’t use IQ, unless they want to get sued.
所以 他们使用学历筛选
so they use the next best thing, a degree.
因为 尽管它们无用
Because even if they’re useless,
选择上大学的人们
people who choose to attend university
在初上大学时更聪明
tend to be smarter in the first place.
同样 他们可能为他们的职业而更积极
They’re also probably more motivated for their career,
更习惯在最后期限前完成任务
more accustomed to deadlines,
吸毒可能性更小
less likely to do drugs,
工作更努力 等等
harder working, and so on.
然而这筛选程序
And while this filter works,
它有个缺陷很大的系统
it creates a deeply flawed system.
对于雇主来说
For the employers,
一日 一位出色的候选人去应聘工作
one day an outstanding candidate is going to apply for the job,
他被拒绝了
and he’s going to get rejected,
仅仅因为他没有完成肤浅的学历
simply because he didn’t fulfill the superficial criteria.
对于员工来说
As for the employees,
为了保持竞争力 他们现在被迫去获得学位
well, they’re now forced to get a degree to stay competitive,
不管学历有没有用处
regardless of whether it’s useful or not.
并且这也不是可以轻易牺牲的
And this is no easy sacrifice either.
对于某些人 这花了他们一生的积蓄
For some, it costs their whole life’s saving.
对于所有人来说 这浪费了我们大部分的青春
And for all, it wastes our most youthful years.
因此 我们该怎么办呢?
So what can we do about it?
嗯 有些人会说 我们应禁止雇主
Well, someone said, we should ban employers
询问大学文凭
from asking about university credentials,
就像我们禁止他们询问宗教或政治信仰那样
just like how we ban them from asking about religion or politics.
或许以后 人们不会再下意识地想
Perhaps then, people would stop mindlessly
用学历代替实际技能学习
substituting a degree for the actual learning of skills.
但这在近期内不会实现
But as this won’t happen any time soon,
我的个人建议是
let me suggest some personal advice.
不要听信任何人说
Don’t listen to anyone who says that it’s important
在大学努力学习 考取好成绩很重要
to study hard and get good grades in university.
这是浪费时间 真正重要的是信号
It’s a waste if all that’s really important is the signal.
相反 关注绝对最小值
Instead, aim for the bare minimum.
更重要的是
And more importantly,
利用空闲时间集中于
use the spare time to focus on the other opportunities
大学提供的其他机遇
that universities offer.
例如
For example,
如果你不知道长大后想干什么
if you don’t know what you wanna be when you grow up,
这很正常
that’s fine,
但是 要利用时间 尝试不同的课程
but use this time then to experiment with different courses
然后找出你所感兴趣的领域
and figure out which fields genuinely interest you.
或许 你想提高社会技能
Or perhaps you want to improve your social skills,
如果是这样
if that’s the case,
大学有许多俱乐部和社团
universities are one of the best opportunities you have for socializing,
与各个不同领域的人交流接触
with multiple clubs and societies
为你提供极好的社交机遇
and a diverse range of people to interact with.
或者 你可以申请实习
Alternatively, you could apply for an internship
获得一些工作技能
to get some job experience.
你甚至可能开始自己的项目
You may even start your own project,
例如开创YouTube频道或者初创公司
like a youtube channel or a start-up company.
大学所有这些方面
All of these aspects of university
对我们都不是很重要
aren’t really emphasized to us.
并且 所有一切都值得时间投资
And yet, all of them would be a better investment of your time.
因为最终 当你不学习时
Because ultimately, what you do when you’re not studying
你所做的大多数是来自你所学的
is what you learn the most from.
因此 要利用好大学时光
So make sure to get the most out of your time at the university.
嘿 小伙伴们
Hey guys,
如果你想获取更多心理学视频
if you want more psychology videos to check out,
前往PSYCH2GO
head over to PSYCH2GO
看看有什么玩意
and see what they’ve got.
希望你喜欢这个视频
I’ve hoped you’ve enjoyed this video.
下期再见
Till next time, take care.

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视频概述

大学真正有用的不是获得学历!这里给你的大学生活提供更有用的建议。

听录译者

可可天使

翻译译者

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSjPW4ZMtus

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