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你的口音说明了什么? – 译学馆
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你的口音说明了什么?

What Does Your Accent Say About You?

不管你是说“tomato”还是“tomato”
Whether you say tomato or tomato,
很明显口音是你的一个明显特征
it ’ s clear that your accent is a defining feature of who you are.
每个人都有口音
Everyone has an accent ( heck,
(甚至山羊都会因地域差异以不同方式叫“咩”)但是
even goats have regional ways of saying BAAH ), but what ’ s
语言习得背后的科学原理是什么
the science behind language acquisition?
而你的口音能反映出你的一些特点吗?
does your accent say something about you?
根据美国一项调查
In an American survey,
47%的成年人认为英式口音很老练
47 % of adults found British accents to be sophisticated, while
而51%的人们认为纽约口音很粗鲁
51 % thought New York accents were rude;
大家认为美国南部口音比较友好 但可能
Southern accents were considered nice but possibly
有点没文化 而新英格兰地区的口音就听起来很智慧
uneducated, while New England accents wereconsidered intelligent.
原来 人们都会倾向于(偏爱)
But it turns out that humans have a bias
那些声音与自己相似或口音相同的人
towards others who sound like them or have the same accent.
当然
Of course, it ’ s important to distinguish
区分母语口音和外来语言口音 是很重要的
between a native language accent and an additional language accent.
英语母语语音是依赖于一些因素的
English native language accents depend on factors such
比如 地理位置和社会经济的 地位
as geographic location and socioeconomic status.
例如
For example a cockney accent
伦敦工薪阶层的伦敦口音
of the working class London is markedly different than the
是和女王的标准发音全然不同的
Queen’s Received Pronunciation.
但是 对于非母语语言口音 这就比较复杂了
However, when it comes to non-native language accents, things are more complicated.
如果你打算去西班牙生活 并学习西班牙语
If you decide to move to Spain and learn Spanish
作为一位母语为英语的西班牙语学习者
as an English speaker, you will always speak
你说话总会带着英语口音 即使你在西班牙呆几十年
with an English accent – even if you remain their for decades.
在12岁之后
After the age of 12,
居住时长对口音的影响是微乎其微的
the length of residence has almost no effect on your accent.
研究表明 6岁是最佳年龄
Studies pinpoint the ideal age as 6 years old,
在6岁后形成口音的能力就逐渐减弱
with diminishing ability from that point forward.
有趣的是 一些中风病人
Interestingly, some stroke patients wake
醒来后 会有和之前完全不同的 口音
with an accent completely different to their original voice.
这种情况
This condition is known
被称为“外国口音综合症” 是由于
as the ‘ Foreign Accent Syndrome ’ and results from damage
大脑中负责语言处理的脑岛部分损坏所导致
to the insula region of the brain which is responsible for language processing.
语言的一个组成部分是音素
One integral aspect of language is the phoneme.
音素是我们用来组成单词的不同的语音单位
Phonemes are the different sound units we use to make up words –
一些音素是
some of which are unique
某种语言所特有的
to different languages.
比方说“TH”开头的音素(th和th)
For example, the phonemes with TH ( th and th )
例如“the”和“thing”之中的th
as in words like ‘ the ’ and ‘ thing ’
在德语中是不存在的
do not exist in German,
这对德语母语者来说 读准这类单词不易
making it difficult for German speakers to pronounce these words properly.
相反 在其他语言中 有许多音素
Conversely, there are many phonemes in other languages
是英语母语者不能
that as English speakers we can not
发准确甚至听不懂的
pronounce or even hear properly.
在一项开创性研究中
In a groundbreaking study,
32个美国六个月宝宝和32个日本六个月宝宝
32 American and 32 Japanese six month old babies listened
分别听录放机循环播放“la la la”
to a recorder play “la la la” repeatedly.
当录音转到“la la ra”时
When the recording switched to “ la la
旁边的一个玩具会发光
ra ” a toy to the side would light up and play
并播放音乐
a musical tune.
宝宝们如果
The babies were primed to understand
识别出“la”和“ra”
that recognizing the difference between “ la ”
之间的区别 就能获得一次
and “ ra ” lead to an audio-visual
视听奖励 美日两国的六个月宝宝
reward and both the American and Japanese 6 month
都能够区分
old babies were able to tell the difference
并期盼这个玩具的奖励
and anticipate the toy reward when necessary.
但是“la”和“ra”
But “ La ” and “ ra ”
都是在日语中不存在的音素
are phonemes that do not exist in the Japanese language.
当由10-12个月的宝宝进行这个实验时
When this study was replicated with 10-12 month old babies,
日本宝宝
the Japanese babies could
就不能区分这些英语中独有的音素了
not tell the difference between these uniquely English phonemes,
这意味着
showing that a critical
6个月是识别音素和大脑发育是最佳时期
period for recognizing phonemes and brain development is at merely six months old.
如果你想尝试学习一门语言
If you try and learn a language,
不管你几岁都能够建立突触连接
regardless of your age, synaptic connections are made,
最终会形成一个密度更高的脑灰质和脑白质的网络
which ultimately create a denser grey matter and stronger white matter networks.
事实上 那些在
In fact, those who have grown up
双语环境中成长的人们相比单一语言者
in bilingual households are consistently more sensitive
对微妙的语言差异更敏感
to subtle language differences compared totheir monolingual counterparts.
大脑扫描结果显示
Brain scans have shown
双语宝宝在额框部皮质和前额皮质有更强大的
that bilingual babies have stronger brain responses in their orbital
反应能力 这两个区域和注意力以及解决问题能力有关
and prefrontal cortices, which are areas linked to focus and problem-solving abilities.
但是 你想过为什么很多人
But have you ever wondered why so many
讨厌他们自己的声音吗?
people hate the sound of their own voice?
我们用通俗的语言解释科学道理
We break down the science and challenge some
并请人们发表自己的见解
people to come to terms with their own voice
详见我们的ASAPTHOUGHT视频
in our AsapTHOUGHT video.
点击链接并订阅我们的视频
Check it out with the link in the description And subscriber
每周即可收看到更多的科学视频
for more weekly science videos.

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视频概述

口音的确受地域 年龄 生理上的影响

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GG3X4GZ4FHQ

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