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世界各地的传统音乐有什么共性?

What does traditional music around the world have in common?

Some songs might speak to your soul
有些歌曲能与你的心灵对话
even if you don’t know the words
即使你不了解歌词的意思
The almost magical way that music reflectsand influences our emotions,
这是音乐反映并且影响我们情感的神奇之处
led the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to declare it
这使得美国诗人亨利·沃兹沃斯·朗费罗把音乐称之为
the “universal language of mankind.”
“人类心灵的通用语言”
But how universal is it, really?
但音乐真的是世界通用的语言吗?
A team of more than a dozen researchers and countless undergraduates
一个拥有十余名专家和无数研究生的团队
set out to compile and annotate
编译和注释描述
descriptions and recordings of musical performances around the world.
世界各地的音乐表演以及它们的录音
Their first finding: music is, indeed universal.
他们的第一个发现是 音乐确实具有世界性
Or at least statistical modeling strongly suggests
至少调查数据明确显示如此
that more than 99% of societies have music.
超过99%的社会文明都有音乐
Then, they analyzed the song descriptions
随后他们分析了这些音乐所描绘的
for 60 very different societies:
60个截然不同的社会
from the Pawnee in plains of North America
从北美平原的波尼族
to the Saami of Scandinavia,
到斯堪的那维亚的萨米族
a representative sample that
有着一个有代表性的样本
let them test dozens of theories.
让他们检验出了几十种理论
They looked at different qualities related to song performance. [Audience size][Audience demographics][Dancing][Instrumentation][Ceremonial use]
他们考察了与歌曲表演有关的不同形式标准
As they classified the songs,
当他们对歌曲进行分类时
they found that three dimensions accounted
他们发现其中有三个维度
for more than a quarter of the variability between songs.
在歌曲变异性中占据了四分之一以上
The first was how formal or informal a song was.
首先是歌曲的正式性程度
Songs high in formality
正式性程度高的的歌曲
had large audiences and lots of instruments,
会拥有更多听众并且会运用许多乐器
often involved ceremonial events,
往往是关于仪式活动方面的
and frequently had adults only audiences.
而且一般只有成人听众
Informal events had smaller audiences,
而非正式音乐拥有的听众并不多
including children, or no audience at all.
包括儿童或者根本没有听众
Second was how arousing a song was to its listeners.
第二个维度是一首歌如何吸引它的听众
Lively events involving lots of dancing were high on this dimension,
在这个维度上涉及大量舞蹈的活跃活动会比较多
while a low value reflected a calmer event,
但是平缓的活动更加常见
like someone singing to themselves or a baby.
像是某人低吟或唱摇篮曲
Last was how religious a song was.
最后一个维度是歌曲的宗教性
Songs used in ceremonies and funerals were high in religiosity,
在仪式和葬礼上使用的歌曲都是具有宗教性的
while those without a spiritual context scored low.
而那些没有宗教性质的歌普及率较低
The researchers applied their findings to
研究人员将他们的发现
four widespread categories of music:lullabies, dance songs,
应用于四大类流行音乐:摇篮曲 舞曲
love songs, and healing songs, and found clear trends.
情歌和疗愈歌曲 其中发现了明显的趋势
Most dance music was highly arousing and formal,
大多数舞蹈音乐都是激昂和正式的
but low in religiosity. [Dance songs] [Hopi people, United States]
但宗教程度却很低
[Dance songs]
[舞曲]
Lullabies were mostly low formality and low arousal. [Lullabies] [Ainu people, Japan]
摇篮曲大多是不拘谨和低唤醒状态的
[Lullabies]
[摇篮曲]
And healing song scored high in all dimensions. [Healing songs] [Meratus people, Indonesia]
而疗愈歌在各个维度都很大的分值
[Healing songs]
[疗愈歌曲]
While love songs were low in all dimensions. [Love songs] [Amhara people, Ethiopia]
情歌在各个方面的成就都不出彩
[Love songs]
[情歌]
Even more interesting, the distribution of these behaviors
更有趣的是 这些音乐的维度的分布在所研究的社会中
was similar in all societies studied.
是十分相似的
Next, researchers looked at underlying
接下来 研究人员研究了歌曲的基本声学特征
acoustic features of a song, like tempo and rhythm.
如拍子和节奏
They collected 118 recordings of songs throughout the world.
他们在世界各地收集了118首歌曲的录音
They found two factors that
发现其中有两个因素
explained a quarter of the variability in songs:
可以用来解释一部分的歌曲变化
melodic complexity and rhythmic complexity.
分别是旋律的复杂性和节奏的复杂性
Unsurprisingly, dance songs were more rhythmic than
这并不奇怪 因为舞蹈歌曲比摇篮曲更有节奏感
say lullabies, but overall the four categories of songs
但总的来说 这四类歌曲
couldn’t be told apart solely by their melodic or rhythmic complexity.
不能仅仅只通过它们的旋律或节奏的复杂性来区分
Scholars say that their database could fuel future research into [Discography database] [Ethnography database]
据学者说 他们的数据库可以为未来研究
even more intriguing questions about music universals.
关于音乐普遍性的有趣问题提供借鉴
And their method might be used to pick out
他们的方法可以
patterns in other hard to analyze fields,
被用来挑选出其他难以分析领域的模型
like storytelling or visual art.
比如讲故事或者是视觉艺术的模型
Who knows what other commonalities
又有谁知道
underlie the diversity of cultures around the world.
世界各地的文化多样性有哪些共同点呢?

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视频概述

因为在生活必不可少,那么不同的音乐有什么共性呢?全世界的传统音乐又有什么共性呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

KAY

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMFVo0X9HPE

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