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月球闻起来是什么味儿的? – 译学馆
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月球闻起来是什么味儿的?

What Does the Moon Smell Like?

When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin left the surface
当尼尔·阿姆斯特朗和巴兹·奥尔德林离开月球表面
of the Moon and climbed back into
回到登月飞船内时
the Lunar Lander, they brought a bunch of Moon dust in with them.
他们带回了一捧月球尘埃
Half of this dust is super fine, razor sharp glass,
尘埃成分里半数是精细锋利的玻璃物质
and it clings to everything.
能粘附到任何东西上
It also — according to almost all
12位曾踏上月球的宇航员里
of the 12 astronauts who set foot on the moon, smells
几乎每个人都认为 月球尘埃的气味
like something about to catch fire… or wet ashes…
闻起来像什么东西快要着了或湿的灰烬
or mostly… spent gunpowder.
或大致上像燃烧后的火药气味
Question is: why?
问题是:为什么?
All these smells are related to combustion reactions,
上述气味都与燃烧反应有关
which are pretty common here on Earth.
燃烧反应在地球上 十分常见
This is a combustion reaction, specifically this one.
这是一种燃烧反应 特别指出这个氧气
This is also a combustion reaction,
这也是燃烧反应
but it’s muuuuch faster,
但是更加迅速
because instead of getting the oxygen from the atmosphere,
因为爆炸物不是从空气中获得氧气
explosives have an oxidizer
而是在其化学结构中
built right into the chemical structure of the fuel,
就有氧化剂成分
or they’re paired with a strong oxidizer like potassium nitrate.
或者配合使了硝酸钾这样的强氧化剂
Let’s look at nitroglycerin,
我们看一下硝酸甘油
an explosive used in gunpowder.
这是火药中用到的爆炸物
Here’s what happens — in theory — when it explodes.
下图是它爆炸时发生的化学反应
The thing is… none of the gases produced
问题是 生成的气体中
smell like spent gunpowder, or anything else.
没有闻起来像爆炸后的火药之类的
You’re breathing all of them in right now.
假设你现在正在吸入这些气体
Do you smell anything?
你闻到什么了吗?
No.
没有
But combustion reactions
但是包括爆炸在内的所有燃烧反应
— including explosive ones — never happen “perfectly.”
实际发生时不会那么“完美”
Lots of other products,
许多其它气体也会形成
some of them not smelly, and some of them quite smelly, get formed.
有的没有气味 有的相当难闻
These molecules wander up to the back of your nose, where you have a small patch of neurons
这些气体分子游荡到你鼻子里的一小撮神经元附近
— brain cells — each of which has one type of smell receptor.
也就是脑细胞 每个神经元上面都有一种嗅觉受体
That receptor is a protein
受体的成分是蛋白质
that is partly inside the cell,
它们部分位于脑细胞里
and partly sticking out into the empty space of your nose.
部分向外 伸到鼻子的空腔里
When a small molecule binds to a receptor,
当一个分子与受体结合
its neuron sends a signal up to the brain,
该神经元就会向大脑发送一个信号
which then weaves all of these signals together
大脑将所有这些信号编织在一起
into something you recognize as a smell.
形成了你所知的气味
One molecule can activate a variety of receptors;
一个分子可以刺激多个受体
and most familiar smells are a combination of molecules,
大部分常见的气味都是多种分子的组合味道
so humans can smell a wide variety of things.
所以人类可以闻到各种各样不同的气味
Dogs still have us beat, though.
不过狗狗更胜一筹
We’ve got about 400 different types of smell receptor
人类有大约400种不同的嗅觉受体
s but dogs have over 1000.
而狗狗有超过1000种
So back to the Moon.
回到月球话题
As you may have noticed, it’s not on fire,
你可能注意到了 月球没有着火
and as far as we know there was no recent civil war reenactment there.
近期也没有内战在月球重演
So what’s causing these combustion or explosion-like smells?
那是什么导致了这种类似燃烧或爆炸的气味?
Most Moon astronauts agreed that the smell was explosive or combustion related,
多数宇航员都将月球尘埃与爆炸或燃烧气味联系起来
which suggests it’s not just a random fluke.
意味着这并非偶然
So there must be some chemical process that caused the same —
一定有某种化学反应产生了相同
or similar — small molecules
或相似的小分子
to wander into the astronauts’ noses.
进入了宇航员鼻子
This is not a crazy idea.
这并不是异想天开
There’s actually a fair bit of chemistry happening on the Moon.
事实上 月球确实进行着大量的化学反应
The Moon is constantly getting pummeled by ions from the Sun,
太阳发射的粒子持续猛击月球
cosmic radiation, and tiny meteorites crashing into its surface.
宇宙射线和小陨石不断地撞击着月球表面
It’s possible that all this abuse creates some molecules
这些撞击可能产生了一些分子
that could become smelly, if
当这些分子与某些物质
they were to react with something else — say,
如飞船内的空气 发生反应时
the air in the lunar lander.
就会变得难闻
Because there’s no atmosphere on the Moon,
因为月球上没有空气
these hypothetical molecules just sorta hang
这些假想出来的分子 漂浮在周围
around…until…
直到……
You’ll notice that Buzz here is wearing a spacesuit,
可以看到 奥尔德林穿了一件宇航服
so right at this very moment,
所以此刻
he’s not smelling the Moon.
他闻不到月球的味道
All the smelling happened after the moonwalks,
闻到气味发生在他结束月球行走
inside the lunar lander, in an atmosphere
回到充满空气的飞船后
made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and… oxygen. Also,
空气里充满了氮气 水蒸气 二氧化碳和氧气
remember down here on Earth,
在地球上
combustion smells are caused by carbon-based molecules
燃烧的气味是由碳基分子
reacting with oxygen.
与氧气反应产生的
OK, now this is where we get into educated guesswork.
好了 我们据此进行有理推测
We don’t know exactly what happened up there,
我们不太清楚月球上发生了什么
but there are a few theories floating around on the Internet,
但有一些理论在网上广为流传
also known as the theory machine.
这也是因特网被称为理论机器的原因
Possibly the simplest explanation for what was going on is the “ desert rain effect. ”
对月球上发生了什么最简单的解释可能是 “沙漠降雨效应”
We made a video about this. Basically,
我们为此拍了一个视频 大致来说
dry Moon dust hitched a ride into in the lander,
干燥的月球尘埃搭宇航服的便车进入飞船
and then water in the lander’s
飞船内空气中的水分
atmosphere liberated small smelly molecules trapped in the dust.
释放了被困在尘土中的带臭味的分子
Those molecules then wafted into Buzz’s nose.
然后这些分子飘进了奥尔德林的鼻子里
Another similar explanation is
另一个相似的解释是
that larger carbon-based molecules trapped in Moon dust
月球尘埃中的碳基分子
were slowly oxidized by the oxygen in the lander’s atmosphere,
被飞船中的氧气慢慢氧化
breaking down into small smelly molecules
分解成有臭味的小分子
that wafted into Buzz’s nose.
进入奥尔德林的鼻子
This is sort of like a super-slow-motion combustion or explosion reaction.
这有点像是超慢速的燃烧或爆炸反应
But — as a lunar dust expert we talked to pointed out —
但是我们采访的一位月球尘埃研究专家指出
we haven’t yet found any small smelly molecules trapped in Moon dust,
目前仍未在尘埃中发现任何带臭味的小分子
nor have we found any larger carbon-based molecules that might break down into smallersmelly ones.
也没有发现能被分解成臭味小分子的碳基大分子
Like sand here on Earth,
类似地球上的沙子
Moon dust contains lots of mineral fragments and glassy shards,
月球尘埃中含有许多矿物碎片和玻璃渣
but they don’t smell.
这些物质都没有气味
Some scientists think that free radicals might have something to do with the smell.
所以一些科学家认为 臭味可能与自由基有关
Free radicals are formed when cosmic or solar radiation
当宇宙射线或太阳辐射
knocks an electron off a molecule in the dust,
将尘埃里某个分子上的一个电子撞击下来
forming highly reactive species
形成的高活跃物质 渴望恢复8个电子的稳定结构
that are missing their full set of 8 electrons.
就形成了自由基
Other scientists think ions from the sun might be involved.
另一些科学家认为臭味可能与太阳发射的粒子有关
And then there are micrometeorites, which are exactly what they sound like
微小陨石 就想听上去一样
and can create free radicals and ions.
可以产生自由基和离子
The idea here is that the free radicals or ions could be formed in Moon dust
这个观点认为自由基和离子在月球尘埃中形成后
, and then react with the atmosphere in the lander,
与飞船中的空气发生反应
producing the spent gunpowder smell.
产生了燃烧后的火药气味
Or, in a related twist:
或者相反的推测是
the free radicals themselves react directly with cell membranes
自由基本身直接作用于鼻子里的细胞膜
in your nose, “ tricking ” your brain
“欺骗”你的大脑
into thinking that you were smelling something.
使之以为你正在闻某种东西
The problem with that last theory,
但正如嗅觉和火药专家指出
as our smell and gunpowder experts pointed out, is
上条理论存在一个问题
that if there really were lots of free radicals getting
如果真有大量自由基
into your nose and reacting with everything,
进入你的鼻子并发生反应
you wouldn’t smell much —
你不会闻到什么气味
you would just feel a lot of pain.
只可能感到非常痛苦
For this episode, We talked to two experts
这期视频前 我们与两位月球尘埃研究专家
in lunar dust, an explosives expert, and a smell expert.
一位爆炸物专家和一位嗅觉专家进行了讨论
Each scientist had their own take on what was most plausible.
每位科学家对臭味的产生原因都有不同看法
Some pointed out that it could be a combination of things.
一些专家认为可能是多种原因的结合
Most of our experts seemed to think that
而大多数专家则认为 产生这种气味的原因
either carbon-based molecules, free radicals, or
不是碳基分子和自由基
ions in Moon dust reacted with the lander’s atmosphere, producing the smell.
就是尘埃中的离子与飞船中的空气发生反应导致的
But all of them agreed that the only way to find out
但他们都认为找出真实原因的唯一途径
is to actually get our hands on some fresh Moon dust and run some real experiments.
就是获取一些新鲜的月球尘埃进行实验
Which means going back to the Moon.
那就要回到月球上
What theory do you guys think is most plausible?
你们认为哪个理论最有道理?
Let us know in the comments.
请在评论中告诉我们
Links to all sources in the description.
并在描述中标明来源
Have fun going down this rabbit hole, and see you next week!
祝你们在兔子洞玩得开心!下周再见!
PBS is bringing you the universe with SUMMER OF SPACE,
PBS的SUMMER OF SPACE频道 将宇宙展示在你的眼前
which includes six incredible new science and history shows streaming on PBS.org and the PBS Video app,
六个超棒的科学和历史新节目正在PBS网站和PBS视频app上播出
along with lots of space-y episodes from PBS Digital Studios creators.
还有许多来自PBS数字工作室创作的space-y剧集
Follow me over to EONS to check out their Summer of Space episode on CELESTIAL CYCLES AND EARTH’S CLIMATE.
在EONS上关注我 观看“天体秩序和地球气候”栏目的 宇宙之夏剧集

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视频概述

看起来冰冰凉凉的月亮,其实闻起来是烧烤味的?!

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收集自网络

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQod_oYnFTc

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