ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

色情片对你的大脑做了些什么? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

色情片对你的大脑做了些什么?

What Does Pornography Do to Your Brain?

(片头曲♪)
[INTRO ♪]
无论是好是坏
For better or worse,
世界各地的人通过互联网聚集到了一起
the internet brings people together from distant corners of the world,
并能在网上获知与任何能想到的话题有关的信息
and has information on every conceivable topic.
当然 也包括色情片
And, of course, that includes porn.
网上实际上有多少低俗色情内容
There’s some debate about how much of the internet
这一问题还存有争议
is actually pornographic content.
但如果你找的话还是能找到的
But if you look for it, you’ll find it.
那么 色情片如何影响人的大脑 态度和行为?
So how does it affect people’s brains, attitudes, and behaviors?
简单地说 这很复杂
The short answer is, it’s complicated,
而且很多方面都是未知数
and there’s a lot we don’t know.
但我们已经就观看色情片的一些风险
But we have studied some of the risks, and yes,
甚至是潜在好处进行过研究
even possible benefits, of watching pornography.
一些研究的内容会涉及到
So you know, some of these studies talk about
性暴力、强奸等令人不安的行为
disturbing behaviors like sexual violence and rape.
所以在此做提醒 以免你不想看到这些内容
Just in case you would like to avoid those things.
大部分色情片的研究都是具有相关性的
Most research on pornography is correlational.
研究并不是通过招募志愿者
There aren’t volunteers who get randomly assigned
随机分配他们看一系列色情片
to watch a bunch of explicit videos
观察他们大脑的变化
to see what happens to their brains.
相反 很多研究都涉及民众调查
Instead, lots of studies involve surveys,
除了调查人们看色情片的数量
asking people about their behaviors and traits,
还会问他们的行为和性格
in addition to how much porn they watch.
另外 每个参与者
On top of that, everyone who participates
必须同意参与色情片的研究
needs to consent to being in a study about pornography,
这也许意味着 部分人是自主参与到研究中的
which might mean some people self-select out of this.
这些都说明:
All that to say:
我们无法确定这些研究结论是否适用于所有人
we can’t be sure if these findings apply to everyone
甚至是大部分人 但这为以后的研究开了个头
or even most people, but they’re a start.
一些研究发现 大量观看色情片
Some research has found that watching a lot of pornography
也许反映了不同人大脑的差异
might reflect differences in people’s brains,
尤其是叫做纹状体的部分
especially in a part called the striatum.
纹状体与大脑的奖励机制有关
The striatum is involved in reward processing,
并且除了脑内其它区域外 纹状体在性唤起期间也不断被激活
and consistently gets activated during sexual arousal among other regions.
性唤起涉及到大脑内许多区域的活动
Sexual arousal is a workout for a lot of your brain.
两个研究对70位男性进行了测试 向其展示性感照片
Two MRI studies tested about 70 male participants
观察其核磁共振成像
by showing them sexy pictures.
研究发现 和看色情片不上瘾的男性相比
And the men who felt their pornography use was addictive or problematic
看片成瘾的男性脑内腹侧纹状体更活跃
had more activity in the ventral striatum compared to those who didn’t.
另一研究发现
Another study found that
男性观看色情片的数量
how much porn men watched was negatively correlated with
和位于纹状体内的右侧尾状核的大小
the size of a part of the striatum called the right caudate,
以及纹状体和脑内其它部分的连接性
as well as the connectivity between the striatum
呈负相关
and other parts of the brain.
该研究组人员称
The researchers of that last study say
可能阅片无数的人
it’s possible that people who watch a lot of pornography
大脑奖励机制经常被触发
stimulate this reward system a lot,
他们的大脑由此被重塑为需要接受更多刺激
and actually rewire their brain to need more stimulation.
但他们也提醒
But they also note that
色情片也许不是造成这些大脑差异的原因
these brain differences might not be caused by porn.
换句话说 脑内纹状体更小的人
In other words, people with a smaller striatum
也许需要更多刺激来体验到愉悦感
may need more stimulation to experience pleasure,
因此会看更多色情片
and seek out more pornography.
由于这些研究都具有相关性
With this kind of correlational research,
无法分辨哪个结论才是正确的
you can’t really tell which of the two it is.
另一个经常提到的问题是
Another question that comes up a lot
看色情片能不能释放情绪
is whether viewing pornography can be cathartic,
也就是说 这是不是宣泄特定情绪的安全出口?
basically a safe outlet for certain emotions.
例如 心理学家就其如何影响
For instance, psychologists have tried to study
侵犯行为做过研究
how it affects aggression.
观察美国的普遍趋势会发现
If you look at the general pattern across the US,
过去几十年 随着观看色情片变得越来越容易
as pornography has become easier to access over the past few decades,
强奸等暴力犯罪的比例有所下降
rates of violent crime like rape have gone down.
其他国家也是如此
And there’s a similar pattern if you look at
色情片流传开来后呈现出相似趋势
when pornography has become widely available in other countries, too.
但正如之前提到的 这只是有相关性
But, like we mentioned before, this is just a correlation,
并不是所有研究都反映出这一联系
and not all studies show this link.
例如 2016年《传播学刊》使用元分析法
For example, a 2016 meta-analysis in the Journal of Communication
对22个不同的研究做了分析
looked at 22 different studies that
这些研究调查了人们看色情片的数量
asked people about their porn viewing
以及自己做过的性侵犯行为
and self-reported sexual aggression,
如使用暴力 言语性骚扰或其它威胁性行为
things like using force, verbal harassment, or other threatening behaviors.
他们发现 看色情片的数量越多
And they found that more porn viewing
尤其是含有暴力内容的色情片
was related to higher levels of verbal and physical sexual aggression,
言语和身体的性侵犯行为更严重
particularly if the porn had violent content.
这表明行为模仿在起作用
This suggests that behavioral modeling might be at work:
即人们可能会模仿他人行为
that people who see a behavior in others, even on a screen,
甚至模仿在屏幕上看到的行为
are more likely to do it themselves.
所以心理学家试图弄清楚这些相互矛盾的数据资料
So psychologists have tried to make sense of these contradictory data.
2012年一项发表在《刑事司法学术期刊》的研究
One data in 12 study published in the Journal of Criminal Justice
也许能带来一些启发
might help shed some light:
色情片和侵犯行为的关系也许和看色情片的年龄有关
the relationship between porn and aggression could have to do with timing.
研究人员对超过600名曾实施性犯罪的成年男性进行了调查
The researchers asked over 600 adult men
询问他们的看片史
who were convicted of sex crimes about their history of watching pornography.
他们发现青少年时期越常看色情片的人
They found that regularly watching pornography during adolescence
成年后所犯的罪
was linked with more severe crimes committed as adults,
及对受害人的侮辱更严重
including more humiliation of their victims,
所以也许过早看到性侵犯行为是原因之一
so maybe early exposure to aggressive sexual behavior played a part in that.
如果罪犯在犯罪前看过色情片
And if the convicts had reported viewing porn just before their offense,
犯下的罪行会相对轻微
their crimes were less severe,
所以也许色情片能释放情绪
so catharsis may have been involved.
但引发暴力犯罪的原因有很多
But there are also lots of factors that lead to violent crime.
所以 再次提醒 没有体现因果关系的证据
So again, without causal evidence,
我们就无法确定色情片与暴力犯罪是否有关 有何关联
we don’t know if or how pornography is directly linked.
另外 这种研究的样本数量相对有点少
Plus, the sample sizes of studies like that are relatively small,
因为大部分人没有实施暴力犯罪
because most people don’t commit violent crimes.
调查性别歧视会更简单
It’s a little easier to measure something like sexism,
因为任何人都可以发表他对男性和女性的看法态度
since anyone can report their attitudes about men and women.
并且无时无刻不在这样做 这可是互联网
And do, all the time. It’s the internet.
2015年和2017年
According to two studies published
发表在《性学研究期刊》的两项研究
in the Journal of Sex Research in 2015 and 2017
对数万名美国人的习惯做了调查
that looked at the habits of tens of thousands of Americans
结论显示 观看色情片的人拥有更加平等的观念
using pornography is associated with more egalitarian views
比如希望女性参加工作或掌权
things like wanting women in the workplace and in positions of power.
但涉及到“强奸误解”情况就不同了
But the story is different when it comes to rape myths,
比如穿什么才能免遭性侵 这种想法就是“强奸误解”
like the idea that what someone’s wearing can excuse violence against them.
一项面向百名大学生的调查发现
Surveys of hundreds of college students have found that
看色情片 尤其是含有暴力内容的色情片的男性和女性
men and women who view porn, especially violent porn,
更可能接受“强奸误解”
are more likely to believe rape myths.
最后 说到你的身心健康这方面
Finally, when it comes to your overall well-being,
几项研究显示 看色情片对你好不好
several studies suggest that whether porn is good or bad for you
取决于你对它的看法
may depend on whether you think it is.
一项调查过2000多人的研究显示
One study of over 2000 people found that
看色情片与自述的抑郁症状的增加有关
watching porn was linked with an increase in self-reported symptoms of depression.
但这个结果主要体现在10%的人身上
But that effect was mainly seen in the 10 %
这些人尽管在道德上反对色情片 但还是看了
who watched despite their moral opposition to it.
研究人员认为
The researchers supposed that
这些人因自己的道德理想
those people were distressed by the dissonance
和行为不一致而感到苦恼
between their moral ideals and their actions.
对于道德上不反对色情片的人来说
For those who weren’t morally opposed,
只有每周观看色情片
only the people who watched pornography,
很多次的人身上
like, several times a week or more
出现了更多的抑郁症状
reported more symptoms of depression.
研究者推测这里可能出现了一个矛盾点:
And the researchers figured the opposite could be happening here:
这些人可能利用色情片调节压抑的心情
these people may be depressed and using porn to cope.
所以看大量色情片
So there do seem to be some risks
似乎有一定风险
associated with watching a lot of pornography,
但并非全是风险
but it might not be all bad.
最重要的是 我们需要更多研究
More than anything, we need more research to really know
来真正了解色情片对人们的影响
if and how much it affects us.
因为人的心理 大脑及行为是复杂的
Because psychology and the human brain, and our behavior? It’s complicated.
感谢观看本期《心理科学秀》!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
如果你希望并且有能力支持我们
If you want to and have the means to support us
调查研究人类心理方面更棘手的问题
as we cover these trickier questions about the human mind,
你可以登陆“patreon.com/scishow”
consider heading over to patreon.com/scishow,
成为我们的赞助者!
and becoming one of our patrons!
或者如果你想观看视频支持我们
Or if you just want to support us by watching the show,
这也很棒
that is also wonderful.
登陆“youtube.com/scishowpsych”订阅我们的频道
you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych to subscribe.
(片尾曲♪)
[OUTRO ♪]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

色情片如何影响人的大脑 态度和行为?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_OXZhPugKc

相关推荐