You flush it down the toilet many times a day without thinking… but your pee can actually
say a lot about you.
What your body has — or hasn’t — excreted can not only reveal whether you’re pregnant
or what drugs you’ve taken; it can also clue doctors into whether you’re sick.
对于内科医生来说 尿液是很有用的 因为肾脏的重要工作就是
Urine is useful to physicians because it contains everything that’s left over after your kidneys
have done the important job of filtering out toxins, waste products, and excess fluid from
So, if you’ve imbibed something you shouldn’t have, or if something’s wrong with your
kidneys, urine is a perfect tell-all fluid.
而且 得到一个样本 就像去卫生间一样简单
Plus, getting a sample is as easy as going to the bathroom.
And thanks to rapid urine tests, an initial check is fast and easy.
In these types of tests, you just dip a special strip of paper into some urine, and simple
chemical reactions trigger a change in color.
So they can tell you a number of things all at once…
像尿液的ph值 各种化合物的浓度 还有某些细胞或分子的数值
Like the pH of your pee, the concentration of various compounds, and its levels of certain
cells or molecules, such as nitrite.
Normally, your urine doesn’t have any nitrite in it, although it’s chock full of nitrate.
But some bacteria produce enzymes that convert nitrate to nitrite, so extra nitrite in your
pee is a sign of a bacterial infection, usually in the urinary tract.
If you have an infection, you’re also likely to have more white blood cells in your urine,
since your body produces lots of them to try to fight off invaders.
另外 有很多的蛋白质 可能证明了肾脏损坏或者肾脏疾病
Lots of protein, on the other hand, could be evidence of a kidney injury or kidney disease,
通常来说 肾脏储存体内的蛋白质 因为它们可以被重复利用
since normally your kidney keeps proteins in your body, because they can be re-used.
And too much glucose, or sugar, could be a sign of diabetes.
Now, if the results from this “dipstick test” are abnormal, doctors will sometimes
spin down the urine sample, putting it in a centrifuge to separate out some of its components.
然后在显微镜下 看看是否存在细菌或者真菌 或者如果有
Then, under a microscope, you can see if bacteria or fungi are actually there, or if there are
a bunch of red or white blood cells, which could indicate bleeding or inflammation.
You can also catch some more unusual things, like groups of cells or sticky proteins that
clump together called casts.
These are basically molds of the insides of your kidney’s tubules, and they can be a
sign of kidney disease.
And then there are crystals, which come in all shapes and sizes, and can be made out
of different materials.
Finding crystals in your pee might mean you’re prone to kidney stones, or are experiencing
化学疗法对你产生了危险的副作用 或者你摄入了某种有毒的东西 像
a dangerous side effect of chemotherapy, or have even have ingested something toxic, like
While it’s rare for urine by itself to provide a definitive diagnosis, it’s a great starting
point, and doctors can often spot problems early on, often before you have any symptoms.
So, peeing into a cup at the doctor’s office may not be your favorite part of your regular
check-up, but for doctors, that little sample is pure gold!
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