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What Does My Pee Say About Me?

一天之内 你不假思索地在厕所冲好几次马桶……然而实际上
You flush it down the toilet many times a day without thinking… but your pee can actually
say a lot about you.
从你身体排泄的和没有排泄的东西 不仅能说明你是否怀孕
What your body has — or hasn’t — excreted can not only reveal whether you’re pregnant
或者你服用了的什么药物 还能为医生判断你是否生病提供线索
or what drugs you’ve taken; it can also clue doctors into whether you’re sick.
对于内科医生来说 尿液是很有用的 因为肾脏的重要工作就是
Urine is useful to physicians because it contains everything that’s left over after your kidneys
过滤掉血液中的毒素 废物
have done the important job of filtering out toxins, waste products, and excess fluid from
your blood.
所以如果你喝了不该喝的东西 或者你的肾脏出了毛病
So, if you’ve imbibed something you shouldn’t have, or if something’s wrong with your
kidneys, urine is a perfect tell-all fluid.
而且 得到一个样本 就像去卫生间一样简单
Plus, getting a sample is as easy as going to the bathroom.
由于尿液检测很快 初始检查也就很快很容易
And thanks to rapid urine tests, an initial check is fast and easy.
在这类检查中 你只用把一根专用的纸条浸入尿液中
In these types of tests, you just dip a special strip of paper into some urine, and simple
chemical reactions trigger a change in color.
So they can tell you a number of things all at once…
像尿液的ph值 各种化合物的浓度 还有某些细胞或分子的数值
Like the pH of your pee, the concentration of various compounds, and its levels of certain
比如说 亚硝酸盐
cells or molecules, such as nitrite.
通常尿液里没有亚硝酸盐 尽管充满了硝酸盐
Normally, your urine doesn’t have any nitrite in it, although it’s chock full of nitrate.
但是一些细菌产生的酶使硝酸盐转变成了亚硝酸盐 所以你的尿液中多余的亚硝酸盐
But some bacteria produce enzymes that convert nitrate to nitrite, so extra nitrite in your
就是细菌感染的迹象 一般是尿路感染
pee is a sign of a bacterial infection, usually in the urinary tract.
如果你被感染了 尿液中很有可能会有更多的白细胞
If you have an infection, you’re also likely to have more white blood cells in your urine,
since your body produces lots of them to try to fight off invaders.
另外 有很多的蛋白质 可能证明了肾脏损坏或者肾脏疾病
Lots of protein, on the other hand, could be evidence of a kidney injury or kidney disease,
通常来说 肾脏储存体内的蛋白质 因为它们可以被重复利用
since normally your kidney keeps proteins in your body, because they can be re-used.
And too much glucose, or sugar, could be a sign of diabetes.
如果试纸测试的结果不正常 医生有时会
Now, if the results from this “dipstick test” are abnormal, doctors will sometimes
把尿样旋转向下 放进离心分离机分离出一些成分
spin down the urine sample, putting it in a centrifuge to separate out some of its components.
然后在显微镜下 看看是否存在细菌或者真菌 或者如果有
Then, under a microscope, you can see if bacteria or fungi are actually there, or if there are
大量红细胞和白细胞 则可能预示着出血或者炎症
a bunch of red or white blood cells, which could indicate bleeding or inflammation.
你也可能发现更多不同寻常的事情 像成群的细胞或粘性蛋白质
You can also catch some more unusual things, like groups of cells or sticky proteins that
凝固在一起 叫做管型
clump together called casts.
这些基本上是肾小管内部的霉菌 可能
These are basically molds of the insides of your kidney’s tubules, and they can be a
sign of kidney disease.
And then there are crystals, which come in all shapes and sizes, and can be made out
of different materials.
在尿液中发现晶体很可能意味着你有肾结石的倾向 或者
Finding crystals in your pee might mean you’re prone to kidney stones, or are experiencing
化学疗法对你产生了危险的副作用 或者你摄入了某种有毒的东西 像
a dangerous side effect of chemotherapy, or have even have ingested something toxic, like
虽然不能就尿液本身提供明确的诊断 不过这是一个很好的出发点
While it’s rare for urine by itself to provide a definitive diagnosis, it’s a great starting
point, and doctors can often spot problems early on, often before you have any symptoms.
把尿液放进医生办公室的小杯子 也许不是你喜欢的常规检查内容
So, peeing into a cup at the doctor’s office may not be your favorite part of your regular
但是对医生来说 那个小小的样本像纯金一样珍贵
check-up, but for doctors, that little sample is pure gold!
感谢patreon网站的赞助者Verdatum提出这个问题 感谢所有提供答案的
Thanks to patreon patron Verdatum for asking this question, and thanks to all of our patrons,
who keep these answers coming.
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