未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

成为难民意味着什么

What does it mean to be a refugee? - Benedetta Berti and Evelien Borgman

纵览全球
Around the globe,
已有近六千万人为了躲避战乱 暴力和迫害
there are approximately 60 million people who have been forced to leave their homes
而不得不背井离乡 颠沛流离
to escape war, violence, and persecution.
他们中大多数都是在本国流离失所的人
The majority of them have become internally displaced persons,
也就是说 这部分人已经逃离了家乡 但仍然身处自己祖国境内
which means they have fled their homes but are still within their own countries.
而另外一小部分人则跨越边境 向其他国家寻求了庇护
Others have crossed a border and sought shelter outside of their own countries.
这小部分人通常被称为难民
They are commonly referred to as refugees.
但是这个称呼究竟是什么意思呢
But what exactly does that term mean?
难民已存在了数千年
The world has known refugees for millennia,
但是其现代定义却是1951年
but the modern definition was drafted in the UN’s 1951 Convention
在联合国《关于难民地位的公约》里提出的
relating to the status of refugees
公约提出的原因是 二战时大规模的迫害和迁徙
in response to mass persecutions and displacements of the Second World War.
其对难民的定义是: “因有正当理由
It defines a refugee as someone who is outside their country of nationality,
“畏惧由于种族 宗教 国籍
and is unable to return to their home country
“属于某一社会团体或具有某种政治见解的原因
because of well-founded fears of being persecuted.
“留在其本国之外 并且由于此项畏惧
That persecution may be due to their race, religion, nationality,
“而不能或不愿受该国保护的人”
membership in a particular social group, or political opinion,
并且常与战争和暴力联系在一起
and is often related to war and violence.
如今 世界上大约有一半的难民是儿童
Today, roughly half the world’s refugees are children,
有的甚至没有成人陪同
some of them unaccompanied by an adult,
这种情况使得他们特别容易遭到劳役童工者
a situation that makes them especially vulnerable to child labor
或性侵犯者的毒手
or sexual exploitation.
每一个难民的故事都是不可复制的
Each refugee’s story is different,
他们中大多数明知前途未卜且荆棘丛生 却不得不前行
and many must undergo dangerous journeys with uncertain outcomes.
但是 在谈到他们路上的经历之前
But before we get to what their journeys involve,
让我们先搞清楚一件事
let’s clear one thing up.
人们对于移民和难民这两个称呼的区别
There’s a lot of confusion regarding the difference between the terms
常常是混淆不清的
“migrant” and “refugee.”
移民通常指那些由于遭受迫害之外的原因
“Migrants” usually refers to people who leave their country
而离开自己祖国的人
for reasons not related to persecution,
比如寻求更好的赚钱机会
such as searching for better economic opportunities
或者离开遭受旱灾的地区 寻求更好的环境
or leaving drought-stricken areas in search of better circumstances.
世界上还有很多人流离失所是由于
There are many people around the world who have been displaced
自然灾害
because of natural disasters,
粮食不安全
food insecurities,
或者其他困难
and other hardships,
可是无论正确与否
but international law, rightly or wrongly,
国际法却只将那些躲避冲突和暴力的人认定为难民
only recognizes those fleeing conflict and violence as refugees.
那么 一个人逃离祖国之后将会如何呢
So what happens when someone flees their country?
大多数难民的旅程既漫长又艰险
Most refugee journeys are long and perilous
很难获得住处 饮用水和食物
with limited access to shelter, water, or food.
因为离开是那么突然 难以预料
Since the departure can be sudden and unexpected,
家当可能都被丢在身后了
belongings might be left behind,
况且逃难的人们通常不会携带像签证之类的必须文件
and people who are evading conflict often do not have the required documents,
去乘坐飞机或用其他合法途径进入他国
like visas, to board airplanes and legally enter other countries.
这些经济和政治的现实因素也会阻碍他们
Financial and political factors can also prevent them from traveling
以正常渠道前行
by standard routes.
这意味着他们通常只能通过陆地和海洋行进
This means they can usually only travel by land or sea,
甚至可能得把自己的生命托付给走私者
and may need to entrust their lives to smugglers
来帮助他们跨越边境
to help them cross borders.
有些难民一路与家人同行 共同寻找避风港
Whereas some people seek safety with their families,
剩下的则试着独自上路 把至亲留在身后
others attempt passage alone and leave their loved ones behind
期盼着未来某天可以重聚
with the hopes of being reunited later.
这种分离漫长到创巨痛深 难以忍受的地步
This separation can be traumatic and unbearably long.
世界上超过一半的难民原本居住在城市里
While more than half the world’s refugees are in cities,
有时逃难的第一站 就是躲进难民营中
sometimes the first stop for a person fleeing conflict is a refugee camp,
难民营通常由联合国难民署或当地政府管理
usually run by the United Nations Refugee Agency or local governments.
按规定 难民营必须是临时性建筑
Refugee camps are intended to be temporary structures,
要为难民提供短期避难场所 直到他们能安全回家
offering short-term shelter until inhabitants can safely return home,
或者能在东道国合法居留
be integrated to the host country,
又或者能在他国重新定居
or resettle in another country.
但是重新定居和长期居留通常会受到限制
But resettlement and long-term integration options are often limited.
因此 许多难民别无选择 只能持续几年 生活在难民营中
So many refugees are left with no choice but to remain in camps for years
有时 甚至是几十年
and sometimes even decades.
一旦进入一个新的国家 避难者要走的第一个合法流程就是
Once in a new country, the first legal step for a displaced person
申请难民庇护
is to apply for asylum.
提出申请的那一刻起 他们就成为了寻求庇护者
At this point, they are an asylum seeker
在申请通过之后 才能被官方正式认定为难民
and not officially recognized as a refugee until the application has been accepted.
尽管各国对难民的定义基本上是统一的
While countries by and large agree on one definition of refugee,
各个东道国还是有责任审查所有庇护请求
every host country is responsible for examining all requests for asylum
然后决定是否授予申请者难民身份
and deciding whether applicants can be granted the status of refugee.
不同国家的准则存在着显著的差异
Different countries guidelines can vary substantially.
东道国对于已认定的难民
Host countries have several duties
存在一些应尽的义务
towards people they have recognized as refugees,
比如对最低待遇标准和非歧视原则的保障
like the guarantee of a minimum standard of treatment and non-discrimination.
应尽义务中最基本的是“不推回原则”
The most basic obligation towards refugees is non-refoulement,
该原则要求任何国家不得将难民
a principle preventing a nation from sending an individual
推回到使其生命或自由受威胁的国家
to a country where their life and freedom are threatened.
然而现实中 难民却往往成了
In reality, however, refugees are frequently the victims
遭到反复无常和歧视性待遇的受害者
of inconsistent and discriminatory treatment.
他们日益被迫在排外主义和种族主义的针对下
They’re increasingly obliged to rebuild their lives in the face of xenophobia
重新开始生活
and racism.
更多时候 由于被禁止进入劳动市场
And all too often, they aren’t permitted to enter the work force
他们只得完全依靠人道主义援助生活
and are fully dependent on humanitarian aid.
此外 由于缺乏教育支持资金
In addition, far too many refugee children are out of school
大量的难民儿童至今处于失学状态
due to lack of funding for education programs.
如果回顾一下自己的家族史
If you go back in your own family history,
你很有可能会发现 在过去的某个时候
chances are you will discover that at a certain point,
你的祖先也曾被迫背井离乡
your ancestors were forced from their homes,
也许是为了逃离战乱 也许是为了躲避歧视和迫害
either escaping a war or fleeing discrimination and persecution.
回顾过去能帮助我们听到这些近年来
It would be good of us to remember their stories
流离失所寻找新家园的难民故事时
when we hear of refugees currently displaced,
去铭记它们
searching for a new home.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

启点-Mossi

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25bwiSikRsI

相关推荐