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无现金的未来

What does a cashless future mean? | The Economist

Somewhere in the near future physical money
在不久的将来 实物货币将会像
will become like these Relics of a different age
这些不同时代的收藏品一样
and will only be found in places like this
只能在像博物馆这样的地方才能找到
In other words hard cash will disappear.
换句话说 现金将会消失
It will become electronic transferred by things like these.
它会以数字信息的形式演变为电子货币
So what’s the rush to get rid of cash?
为何人们如此急于淘汰现金呢?
And what’s the cost?
这会付出什么代价呢?
《无现金未来意味着什么》
Let’s face it money is cumbersome
让我们面对现实吧
for consumers and banks
现金对于消费者和银行来说都很麻烦
You need to mint the cash, you need to print the bills
人们需要铸币 需要打印账单
you need to transport them in armoured trucks
人们需要用装甲卡车来运输
store it in very secure vaults
并将其保存在非常安全的仓库中
and you need to sort it at the till as well
而且还要将其分类收放在现金抽屉里
Operating in cash costs countries about 0.5 % of their GDP every year
现金运营成本约占一个国家一年GDP总和的0.5%
But cost isn’t the only incentive to move towards a cashless future
成本却不是迈向无现金未来的唯一因素
Demand is rising
人们对电子货币的需求正在上升
Primarily demand from the young generations
主要的需求来自年轻一代
who are looking for fast, easy-to-use means of payments
他们寻求快速易用的支付方式
Digital payments aren’t just easy they are neat
数字货币不仅简单 而且不会残损
It becomes easier for governments to monitor tax evasion and fraud
政府更于易监控逃税和欺诈行为
So we will have less of that going on, probably
所以我们能够减少发生上述情形发生
Having every single payment automatically recorded is efficient
数字支付非常有效率 可以自动记录每笔付款
But there’s a downside
但是它也有缺点
Let’s assume for example that a country that used to be democratic
例如 假设一个曾经民主的国家
where people were not paying too much attention about safeguarding their privacy,
人们较少关注保护自己的隐私
becomes undemocratic and someone wants
在这个国家变得不民主后
to control citizens more closely
有人希望更严密地控制公民
They will try to infer from what you buy
他们试图从人们的购物喜好
your political leanings potentially
推断人民的政治倾向
And generally speaking just monitor what you’re doing
政府通常会监视人们做了什么
in ways that they shouldn’t be doing
但他们不应该这样监视人民
The ballot boxes are kept locked and sealed
选举箱是锁住并密封的
Living in a democratic country doesn’t mean you shouldn’t be concerned
生活在民主国家并不等于人们不需要担心
There are also worries that private companies perhaps
人们也会担心
might use this data in ways that are not safe
私营企业以危险的或者你不喜欢的方式
or that you might not like
使用这些数据
And for a number of sectors
对于许多行业而言
knowing what you do with your money is very important
了解人们把钱花在什么地方是很重要的
Electronic-money trails can allow governments and private companies
政府和私人公司能够利用电子货币的使用记录
to access and harvest personal data
访问和收集个人数据
But there’s another threat that is worrying banks cyber-attacks
银行会遭遇网络攻击是另一种威胁
It was a high-tech bank robbery
这是一起利用高科技抢劫银行的案件
Capital One suffering a massive hack-attack involving
第一资本银行遭遇了大规模的黑客攻击
a hundred million Capital One customer’s accounts
第一资本银行的一亿个顾客账户
had their personal information stolen
他们的个人信息被窃取
In March 2019 Capital One bank was hacked
2019年3月 第一资本银行遭到黑客攻击
A solo hacker managed to steal away
一个独狼黑客设法地盗取了
106 million people’s personal details
1.06亿人的个人详细信息
in a matter of days
在短短几天之内银行遭到黑客攻击
And that attack was noticed just a few months after
而且银行在几个月后才发现遭到黑客攻击
You can see that a lot of companies are not very well protected yet against such threats
你会发现许多公司没能很好地防范这种威胁
Pretty much every day we hear of data breaches
人们几乎每天都能听到网络攻击成功
cyber-attacks that are successful
数据遭泄露的消息
It’s much harder to prevent an attack than to
防范攻击比成为黑客要难得多
be on the hacker side because you only need to succeed once as a hacker
因为作为黑客 你只需要成功一次
Once upon a time you would have two guys coming in
以前有两个人闯进银行
they would tell everyone to be on the floor
他们让所有人趴在地上
put the money in the bag and then run away with the money
把钱装在放进袋子里 然后带着钱逃跑
And you would get insurance against that
最终你会得到保险金以弥补损失
You knew what the risk was
你知道风险是什么
Nowadays with cyber-attacks
如今 有了网络攻击
they can happen any time, they can take any form
它们可以在任何时间 以任何形式出现
So it’s very hard to insure against
所以阻止网络攻击是很难的
Still many countries are fast moving towards a cashless society
尽管如此 许多国家仍在快速迈向无现金社会
In Sweden the number of retail cash transactions per person
瑞典在过去十年中
has fallen by 80% in the past ten years
人均零售现金交易数量下降了80%
The trend is even evident in far more cash-loyal societies
这种趋势甚至在对现金更为忠诚的社会也很明显
China’s digital payments rose
中国的数字支付从2012年的4%
from 4% of all payments in 2012 to 34% in 2017
上升到2017年的34%
The trend is inevitable but a gradual transition is key
这种趋势是不可避免的 但关键是要循序渐进
It’s important that we have a sort of control as to how fast this happens
我们控制这种趋势发展的速度是很重要的
Because if that’s not the case,
因为如果不这样做的话
some people might be left behind
有些人可能会被甩在后面
Some people may find it harder to grasp how much money they have
有些人可能会发现 如果没有实物现金
without the physical representation of it
很难清楚知道自己拥有多少财富
Not everyone knows how to use internet-banking technology
不是每个人都能掌握网上银行的技术
And people living in remote areas where internet cover is patchy may find
生活在网络覆盖不完善的偏远地区的人会发现
they have to drive for miles for their basic needs
他们为了基本上网需求可能必须驱车好几英里
And there is another sector of society that relies heavily on cash
社会的弱势人群 严重依赖现金
People living on the street don’t carry card terminals with them
流落街头的人不带卡终端
So it would be very hard for them
所以无现金对他们来说是非常困难的
well first of all to collect money and to pay for things
他们先要去取现金 才能去买东西
They will be among the people who suffer the most from it
他们将是受害最深的人群之一
Going cashless is just the latest evolution of money in the modern economy
无现金化只是现代经济中货币的最新演变
But it raises a fundamental question
但这随之产生了一个基本问题:
what is the value of money if it doesn’t physically exist?
如果没有现金 货币的价值是什么?
Central banks enact monetary policy by exerting control over the amount of money
中央银行通过控制货币的数量来制定货币政策
that is created and that is in circulation
创造货币 用来流通
And they can do it because they are
中央银行能够这样做是因为
the only entities that print and create money
他们是唯一印刷和创造货币的实体
The purpose of it is to control the amount of money that is used by the entire economy
其目的是控制整个经济的货币使用总量
In a cashless society obviously this becomes much harder
在一个无现金的社会中 这显然会变得更加困难
because money presumably can be created by other entities
因为货币可能是由其它实体创造的
And so central banks are actually starting to realise this
实际上中央银行开始意识到了这一点
Especially after Facebook made the announcement
尤其是在Facebook宣布
that they were looking to launch a digital currency
他们将发行一种数字货币之后
It shows you the extent to which central banks are already thinking
它显示出各国央行已经在很大程度上
about the future of money
开始考虑货币的未来
The move towards cashless societies is well under way
向无现金化社会的转变正在进行中
But governments need to ensure that,
但政府需要确保
as cash is phased out, the vulnerable
逐步淘汰现金的同时
in society aren’t left behind
社会中的弱势群体不会被落下
They need to navigate carefully
他们需要小心前进
the many pitfalls that a digital economy will bring
数字经济将会带来很多风险

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无现金社会意味着什么?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0ph-pvCSPc

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