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最优秀的学生有什么不同?

What do top students do differently? | Douglas Barton | TEDxYouth@Tallinn

第一个问题 你是否想看到在学校的成绩或等级
Q1: Put up your hands if you would like to see
在此刻提高? 请举起手
your marks or your grades at school improve at the moment?
谁想看到他们的成绩或者等级上升?
Who would like to see their marks or grades go up?
绝对多数学生 很好
Most the students, brilliant.
现在 接下来的问题是
Now, my next question is,
你认为让成绩提高的最重要的东西是什么?
what do you think is going to be most important in getting these marks to go up?
那么 我能得到举手示意吗
So, can I get a show of hands
谁会说智商是提高你分数的最重要的东西?
who would say IQ is gonna be the most important thing to get your marks to go up?
不是很多人 好吧 这很好
Not many people, ok, it’s good.
我想学生们昨天一个小时都在讨论这个问题
I suppose the students for an hour yesterday we covered this,
你们都是快速学习者 这很好
you’re all fast learners that’s good.
谁认为努力工作将会是提高成绩最重要的?
Who would say hard work is gonna be most important getting those marks to go up?
大约有整个房间的三分之一 大概40%
Have got about a third of the room, 40% maybe.
棒极了
Fantastic.
现在这些是我和我的团队
Now these are the types of questions that
在Elevate Education的问题类型
my team and I at Elevate Education
过去13年来一直在研究
have spent the last 13 years researching.
我们开始我们的旅程去找出顶尖学生到底做了什么
We started our journey to find out what the top students do
拿到了很好的分数
to get the top results,
因为我认为人们总是有一系列为什么会发生这种情况的解释
because I think people have always had a range of explanations for why this happens.
一些人说顶尖学生获得最佳成绩
Some people say that the top students get the top results
是因为他们有更高的智商 那就是说他们只是比其他任何人聪明一些
because they’ve got higher IQs, that is they’re just smarter than anyone else.
一些人说顶尖学生获得最佳成绩是因为他们工作得更努力
Some people say the top students get the top results because they work harder.
并且这种解释一直在继续
And the explanations go on and on.
所以我们想要做的就是基本上从小说中找出事实
And so what we wanted to do was basically work out fact from fiction,
什么是真的 什么不是?
what was true and what wasn’t?
为了达到这个目的 我们已经花费过去13年
To do this we’ve spent the last 13 years
对澳大利亚 南非 英国和美国
benchmarking the habits, techniques and practices
的数以万计的学生的习惯 技术和实践
of literally tens of thousands of students across Australia,
进行基准测试
South Africa, the United Kingdom and the US.
并且这次我们学到的基本上是三个关键的东西
And what we’ve learnt this time is basically three key things.
首先 顶尖学生获得优秀结果
First of all, the top students don’t necessarily get the top results
不是因为他们有更高的智商 或者他们比其他任何人聪明
because they’ve got higher IQs or because they’re smarter than anyone else.
第二个发现 我们找到这里有一小部分
Finding number two, we found that there’s a small set of skills
在解释为什么顶尖学生获得高分上
that are statistically significant
具有统计意义
in explaining why the top students get the top marks.
换句话说 这里有一小部分事情
In other words, there’s a small set of things that
只有最优秀的学生才会做
the top students do that no one else does
来解释为什么他们能得到如此结果
that explains why they get their results.
有趣的是 这些在各个国家都很常见
And what’s interesting is that these are common across countries.
因此 澳大利亚悉尼的一名学生
So there is relevant for a student in Sydney, Australia where I’m from
与我在伦敦 开普敦 纽约的学生
as they are for a student in London,
或者塔兰特
Cape Town, New York or talent for that matter.
第三件事 并且这可能是今天演讲内容中最重要的发现
The third thing and this is probably the most important finding in the context of today’s presentation,
就是这些技能可以被学生教授和使用
is that these skills can be both taught to
以提高他们的成绩
and used by students to improve their results.
这就是我们作为一个公司所做的事情
And that’s what we do as a company.
今天Elevate和1200个国家的25万学生合作
Today Elevate works with quarter of a million students across 1200 countries,
1200所学校 不好意思
1200…1200 school, sorry,
在四个不同国家 以提高学生们的成绩
in four different countries in order to move up students results.
在这段时间里我发现任何学生基本上都要知道三件事
And what I found across this time is there’s basically three things
如果他们现在想要提高他们的分数
that any student needs to know if they’re looking to move up their marks right now.
第一件事是
The first one of these things
你不需要担心智商的问题
is that you don’t need to worry about IQ.
根据我长期的经验 太多的学生担心 “我是否足够聪明”
It’s been my experience far too many students worry about “am I smart enough”
或者 “我是否有足够高的智商去做得很好”
or “do I have a high enough IQ to do well”.
正如你说 今天没有多少人提出这个问题
As you said not many hands went up to that question today.
然而 通常情况下大约有50%到90%的学生会认为
However normally it’s about 50% to 90% of students
智商是他们成绩的最大推动者
will see IQ as being the biggest driver of their results.
这里有一个很好的例子 三年前在澳大利亚
A great example of this, three years ago in Australia,
我们在最后的高中考试前采访了3000个学生
we interviewed 3000 students before their final high school exams,
并且我们问这些人
and we asked these guys
“什么将会是影响你最后考试结果的最重要的东西?”
“what is going to be most important in impacting your results in your final exams?”
压倒多数 当我说压倒 我的意思是90%的学生
An overwhelming majority, and when I say overwhelming I mean 90%
会反驳 并且说智商将会是第一影响要素
of students came back and said IQ would be the number one factor.
如今好的消息是这些学生存在于绝大多数学生之中
Now the good news is that these students in the vast majority of students
大大高估了智商的重要性
drastically overestimate how important IQ is going to be.
的确 在我们的研究中我们发现智商
Indeed in our research we’re found that IQ
并不是学生表现良好的头号预测因素
is not the number one predictor of how well a student will perform.
事实上我们发现有13种变量
In fact we found 13 variables
在预测学业成绩方面比
that were more effective in terms of predicting academic performance
单纯智商更有效
than simply IQ.
特别地 我们发现其中一个因素
One of these factors in particular we found to be
在预测学业成绩上更有效
multiple times more effective to predict academic performance,
这就是练习考试
and that was practice exams.
我们发现顶尖学生比其他人做更多的练习
We found the top students do more practice exams than anyone else.
我们发现你几乎可以完美地估计一个学生的成绩
We found you can almost perfectly estimate a student’s results
通过看他们做的练习的总数量
by looking at the number of practice exams they’ve done.
同时我们还发现 我们几乎可以完美地排列一个班级
And we also found that we could almost perfectly rank a class
从一开始一直到最后
from first all the way down to last
只需要提供他们一年里所做的练习考试的总数量
just given the amount of practice exams they would do across a year.
现在练习考试的好处在于
Now the great thing about practice exams is that
你不一定要 你不必成为一名练习考试的天才
you don’t have to be…you don’t have to be a genius to do a practice exam.
它完全在你的控制范围之内 其他12个变量也是如此
It’s completely within your control, as are the other 12 variables.
现在让我们更进一步 一起考虑一下
Now let’s take it a step further though, let’s think about
如果一个学生打算在一年内获取成功 并且工作得很好
if a students gonna work successfully across a year and do well
他们需要做些什么?
what do they need to do?
好吧 他们要做的第一件事就是自我激励
Well, The first thing is they’re going to need to be out of self motivate,
因为他们将必须坐下来 需要在一年内持续工作
because they’re going to have to sit down they’re going to need to work consistently across the year.
他们也需要自律
They’re also going to need to be self-disciplined
因为你必须切断干扰 比如 Facebook
because you can have to cut out distractions like Facebook
或者是在YouTube上看六个半小时的猫视频
or watching six and a half hours of cat videos on YouTube.
他们将必须坐着并且切断所有这些干扰
They’re going to have to sit down and cut out all these distractions.
第三件事是他们也需要具备弹性
The third thing is they’re also going to need to be resilient
因为现实是每一个学生都会在一年内失去分数
because the reality is that every students going to lose marks across the year
当这种情况发生时 你必须能够振作起来 弹弹灰尘
and when this happens you’ve got to be able to pick yourself up and dust yourself off.
如今一个学生的智商高低已经无关紧要
Now it doesn’t matter how high a student’s IQ is.
如果你不能做这三件事 你将一直处于不利位置
If you can’t do these three things you’re always going to be at a disadvantage.
事实上 宾夕法尼亚大学的两位教授 Martin Seligman 和 Angela Duckworth 的研究
Indeed research by two professors at the University of Pennsylvania,
很多人从TED演讲中得知
Martin Seligman and Angela Duckworth who many people know from their TED Talks,
他们在一系列领域中发现自律胜于智商
they found in a range of areas self-discipline trumps IQ.
他们发现 在课堂上
They found in terms of the classroom
他们发现自我约束比预测智商本身能
they found self-discipline was two times more effective in predicting academic results
更有效地预测学业成绩
than IQ by itself.
第二个教训是
The second lesson is
不要以只是努力学习为目标
don’t aim to just work hard.
并且我要在这里强调 “ just ” 这个词
And I’m going to emphasize the word “”just” there
因为通常情况下 当我说这个时 我环顾四周有些同学的眼睛突然睁开
because normally when I say this I look around this students whose eyes just open up
因为他们听到的是不要努力学习
and because what they hear is don’t work hard,
然后他们会想 我的天 … 今天来真开心
and they think my god…glad I came today.
所以这不是让你不努力学习的信息
So that’s not the message,
这个信息是不要以单纯的努力学习为目标
the messages is don’t aim to just work hard.
其原因在于 在我们的研究中 我们发现努力学习
And the the reason for that is in our research we found that hard work
是个必要的条件
was a necessary condition,
但是它不是做得更好的充分条件
but it wasn’t a sufficient condition to doing well.
我将通过那个来解释我的意思
And I’ll explain what I mean by that.
在我们的研究中 我们发现只有极少数的学生不努力学习 但做得很好
In our research we found very few students who did well but didn’t work hard.
现实是如果你想要的做得好 你必须努力学习
The reality is if you want to do well you’ve got to work hard.
问题在于 我们发现尽管学生们和顶尖学生们一样努力
The problem is though we found students who worked equally as hard as the top students
但是获得的成绩并不理想
and got worse results.
我们发现有些学生比顶尖学生学习得更努力
We found students who even workd harder than the top students
但最后分数比较可怜
and get…and end up getting poor results.
如果我们考虑下这个问题
And if we think about it,
这实际上是学生在学校表现不佳的原因之一
it’s actually the number…one of the number one reasons for student’s underperformance at school
是因为他们仅仅打算努力学习
is because they simply aim to work hard.
所以我们一直发现学生出现在开学典礼
So all the time we find students who turn up for the new school year
然后他们说顺着这个说一些东西 他们说
and they say something along these lines, they say
“这一年将会变得不一样”
“this year is going to be different”.
他们说 “这一年我将做得更好 我会做一些事情”
They say “this year I’m gonna do better, I’m gonna do some work,
我要按时交作业 我要按时完成作业
I’m gonna hand my homework in on time, I’m gonna get my assignments in on time,
我甚至要为了考试多做一些练习
I’m even doing more study for my exams”.
问题是 尽管下定决心 他们回去依然做着和之前相同的事
The problem is though is that then they go back out they keep doing the same thing they were doing before,
他们只是做了更多
they just do more of it.
这就是Michael Jordan说过的 如果你射击10000个球
And it was Michael Jordan who said it best that if you shoot 10,000 balls
你将会学到劣质的技术
and you’ve got bad technique,
所有你想做的是你要非常擅长射击 太糟糕了
all you’re gonna do is you’re gonna get really good at shooting really badly.
并且这就是那些学生们的问题
And that’s the problem for these students,
他们出去 他们接受提倡学习技巧
they go out they take in advocate study skills
然后他们简单而又经常地使用它们
and they simply use them more often
并且在它结束后 他们期望一个不同的结果
and then they expect a different result at the end of it.
问题是他们突然去考试
The problem is all of a sudden they then go and do an exam,
他们取回成绩 和以前成绩一样
they get their results back, it’s the same result as last time,
这时候 一个恶性循环开始了
and at this point the cycle of disengagement begins
因为这些学生说
because these students say,
“看起来我已经完成所有工作 我甚至学习得更努力 我已经完成了所有的事情
“Look I’ve done everything now, I’ve even worked hard, I’ve done every single thing there is,
我简直不能做到 所以我放弃”
I simply can’t do it and I give up”.
所以这就是我们不希望只是以努力学习为目标
So the thing is we don’t want to just aim to work hard.
我们想要努力工作去做对的事
We want to work hard doing the right things.
现在 有一个很明显的问题出现了 什么是对的事?
Now the obvious question then is, well what are the right things?
在我们的研究中
In our research,
我们发现了13种因素 技巧 习惯 或技术
we found 13 factors or skills or habits or techniques
使得优秀学生和中低等学生区分开来
that differentiated the top students from middle and lower performing students.
我想触及其中的两个
I want to touch upon two of these.
我想触及的两个可能是两个最重要的技能
The two I want to touch upon are they’re probably two of the most important skills,
但其次 在说明方面有很多案例研究
but then secondly there are also great case studies in terms of illustrating
顶尖学生和绝大多数学生做的不同的是什么
what the top students do differently to the vast majority of students.
现在我想说的第一个技能是我今天已经提到的
Now the first skill I want to talk about is one I’ve already touched upon today
练习考试
which is practice exams.
正如我之前所说 我们发现
Now as I said before we found that
练习考试是学生在学校表现良好的首要预测因素
practice exams were the number one predictor of how well a student would do at school.
现在去理解为什么
Now to understand why,
让我们退后一步 一起想一想学生在考试前做了什么
let’s take a step back and let’s think about what students are doing before exams.
现在屏幕上的是我在英语的一群11年级的学生
Now on the screen at the moment I’ve got a group of year 11 students in the United Kingdom
让我们真正完成工作 让我们来看看这些学生中的大多数人在做什么
and let’s actually work through and let’s have a look at what the majority of these students are doing.
现在 我们已经有15%的学生正在做笔记
Now at the top we’ve got 15% of these students who are making their notes.
换句话说 这些是那些在最后一刻离开右边的人
In other words these are the guys who’ve left the right to the last minute
他们坐下来试图在考试前完成笔记
they’re sitting down just trying to get the notes finished before the exams.
我们有5%的学生正在重写他们的笔记
We’ve got 5% of students who are rewriting their notes.
所以这些人现在正在试图基本上学会他们
So these are the guys who are now trying to basically wrote learn them
简单地通过一遍又一遍地写出来
simply by writing them out over and over and over again.
我们在这里占绝大多数 约占56%的学生
We’ve got the overwhelming majority here it’s about 56% of students
正在阅读他们的笔记
are reading over their notes.
所以换句话说 他们正坐在那阅读笔记
So in other words they’re sitting there just reading the notes
一次又一次 直到笔记在他们的记忆中
over and over and over again until it’s in their memory.
换句话说 我们有76%的学生
So in other words we’ve got 76% of students
正花费他们大多数时间去简单地记忆笔记内容
who are spending the majority of their time simply memorizing their notes
要么将它们写出来 再写一遍
either writing them out rewriting them
要么一遍 一遍又一遍地阅读它们
or reading them over over and over again.
现在为什么学生们会这样做呢?
Now why do students do this?
原因是绝大多数学生是这么做的 这是非常直观的
This the reason the vast majority of students will do, this is very intuitive,
因为如果在这个房间的每个人都会回想起他们最后一次考试的恐惧
because if everyone in this room thinks back to what their number one fear was last exam,
一般来说 如果我忘记了什么 那就是头号恐惧
generally the number one fear is what if I forget something.
如果我忘记一个约会 引用 事实 将会发生什么?
What if I forget a date, a quote, a fact, what’s going to happen?
结果这些学生去他们把所有的时间都花在了基于记忆的活动上
And as a result these students go and they spend all of their time on memory based activities.
另一方面 现在我们的优秀学生
Now our top students on the other hand,
我们的优秀学生属于少数
our top students are in the minority,
他们在11%正在进行实践考试的学生中
they’re in this small group of 11% of students who are doing practice exams at the moment.
现在为什么顶尖学生会参加练习考试?
Now why do the top students do practice exams?
他们这样做 是因为他们意识到绝大多数学生没有意识到的事情
They do it because they realize something that the vast majority of students don’t realize –
他们意识到考试不是记忆测试
they realize that an exam is not a test of memory,
一场考试不是检测你能记住多少
an exam does not test you how much you can remember,
它检测的是你如何使用你记的东西
it tests you how you use what you remember.
因此 优秀学生基本上可以比绝大多数学生更进一步
So the top students can basically go one step further than the vast majority of students.
而大多数学生可以简单地记住信息
Whereas the majority of students can simply remember information
顶尖的学生可以分析它 他们可以评估 他们可以发展论据
the top students can analyze it, they can evaluate it, they can develop arguments.
但是当他们走进考场 他们能给考官想要的
But they can give the examiner what the examiner wants when they get into the exam room
这是他们获得成绩的重要原因之一
which is one of the large reasons they get the results they do.
现在是第二个技能 或者在我们达到第二个技能之前
Now the second skill or before we get to the second skill,
我可能只是为了向你们展示这些在国家间的相似之处
I might just to, in order to show you how similar these are across countries.
我将在澳大利亚招收一组11年级学生
I’ll put up a group of year 11 students in Australia
而你会注意到它与我们的英国学生几乎相同
and what you’re going to notice is it is almost identical to our UK students.
事实上学生的百分比再次表示那里的金条
In fact the percentage of students again that gold bar there
参加练习考试的学生的百分比
the percentage of students who are doing practice exams is actually
实际上与我们在澳大利亚的案例研究完全相同
exactly the same as our our case study in Australia.
我们在澳大利亚有11%的学生
We’ve got 11% of students in Australia
正在进行练习考试 但同样
who is doing practice exams, but again,
在我们找到优秀学生的这个少数群体中
it’s within this minority where we find our top students.
现在一起来看第二个技能
Now let’s look at the the second skill.
这项技能也与我今天所触及的事情有关
And this skill also this relates back to something I’ve also touched upon today
这就是自律的概念
which is the concept of self discipline
以及 Seligmann 和 Duckworth 的研究
and the research by Seligmann and Duckworth.
现在 学生在自律方面的头号工具
Now a student’s number one tool when it comes to self discipline
是学习时间表
is a study timetable.
最大的问题是绝大多数学生会制定学习时间表
The big problem is the vast majority of students will create a study timetable
然后绝大多数人会在接下来的一周左右把它扔掉
and then the vast majority of them will throw it out within the next week or so.
我能看到举手示意 关于之前有学生做过这个
And can I get a show of hands about that students who’s done that before
谁制定了一个时间表 只是很快就把它扔掉?
who has created a timetable only to throw it out very quickly?
好的 又一次很多学生
Okay again a lot of students.
好消息是你不是少数
And the good news is that you’re not in the minority.
如果我们看一下这一组在英国的11年级学生
If we look at this is a group of year 11 students in the United Kingdom,
超过50%的学生在一周内抛开了他们的时间表
over 50% of these students have thrown out their timetable within a week,
其中四分之一的学生在几天内将其抛开
a quarter of them have thrown it out within a couple of days,
然后 另一个季度就把它扔掉了 或者在一周内有四分之一的人把它扔掉了
and then the other quarter have thrown it out or more a quarter have thrown it out within the week.
现在再次了解为什么会这样 让我们来看一看 因为
Now again to understand why this is the case let’s have a look because
我们有一小部分学生
we do have a small group of students who
坚持了一个多月 坚持了几个月
stick to it for longer than a month, who stick to it for months on end
一直到一年 这些都是我们的尖子生
all the way up to a year, and again these are where our top students are.
但要理解为什么 让我们来看看大多数学生对顶尖学生的不同看法
But to understand why, let’s look at what the majority of students do differently to the top students.
现在在这张幻灯片上 我有一群11年级的学生
Now on this slide I’ve got a group of year 11 students and
我们先来看看学生们的时间表
we’re having a look at what students put into their timetable first.
所以我们发现绝大多数学生会做的是
So what we find the vast majority of students will do
他们会外出 他们会得到一张纸
is they’ll go out, they’ll get a piece of paper,
他们会在星期一 星期二 星期三 星期四 一直到星期天规划这件事
and they’ll rule this thing up Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, all the way through to Sunday.
然后 他们在研究时间表中首先考虑的是
And then the very first thing they put into their study timetable
他们要去学习的时间
is when they’re going to study
这又是相当直观的
which is again is fairly intuitive.
是的 它被称为学习时间表 所以你认为你把学习放在首位
Right, it’s called a study timetable so you think you put the study in first.
所以我们得到的是大约22%的学生
So we’ve got it’s about 22% of students
会投入他们的作业
who will put in their homework
或者当他们想要用一个引用研究时
or when they’re gonna do quite a quote study.
换句话说 他们正在为这一周投入工作量
In other words they’re putting in their work load for that week.
在这种情况下 我们发现63%的学生获得压倒性多数
We’ve got to get our overwhelming majority at 63% of students in this case
他们投入特定的科目
who are putting in specific subjects.
所以他们可能做的第一件事就是
So the very first thing they might do is
在周一的下午 他们会投入一个小时做法语作业
on a Monday afternoon they’ll put in an hour of French homework
并且大概是因为那天他们有法语课 他们必须为它做功课和学习
and presumably that’s because they had French that day and they’ve got to do homework and study for it.
因此 我们还有大约85%的学生
So again we’ve got about 85% of students who
将学习作为他们的时间表中的第一件事
put study in as the very first thing into their timetable.
现在问题在于这些人最有可能抛开时间表
Now the problem with that is that these guys have the highest likelihood of throwing out the timetable.
正如我们已经在几天或一周内看到的那样
As we’ve already seen within a matter of days or within a week,
它之所以如此 是因为它们绝对是真的
and the reason for it is, is because they go absolutely gung-ho.
他们只是在所有地方进行学习 他们忘记了他们喜欢做的事情
They just put in study all over the place and they forget about the things they love doing.
所以三天 或三周 无论多长
So three days into it, or three weeks into it, however long,
这些家伙坐下来 “我没有做我喜欢做的事
these guys are sitting down going “I’m not doing anything I love doing,
我很无聊 我讨厌这个”
I’m bored, I hate this”,
然后结果会是 他们抛开了时间表
and as a result they throw the timetable out.
现在 我们的优秀学生也是这个图表中的少数
Now again our top students are in the minority on this graph as well,
这些是坐下来制定时间表的人
these are the guys who when they sit down to create a timetable,
他们做其他学生所做的 就是拿到他们的纸
they do what every other student does in terms of they get their piece of paper,
然后进行规划 周一 周二 周三 周四自始至终到周日
and they rule it up, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, all the way through to Sunday.
但这些人不是先进行学习 而是做一些非常不同的事情
But instead of putting in study first, these guys do something very different,
你可以看见这里 他们打算的地方
they put it as you can see there,
他们规划的是他们什么时候不学习
they put in when they’re not going to study,
所以进入这些时间表的第一件事就是这样的
so the first thing to go into these timetables are things like
社交 爱好 运动
socializing, hobbies, sports.
如果有人找到了工作 他们也可以投入工作
If someone’s got a job they might put in the job as well.
而且只有在他们进行了这些活动之后才会这样做
And it’s only once they’ve got these activities in
然后他们回来了 他们开始感受周围的学习
then they come back and they begin to feel the study around it.
对于优秀学生来说 最重要的事情是突然间
The big thing for the top students though is all of a sudden
因为他们在时间表中完成了所有这些活动
because they’ve got all of these activities in their timetables,
这意味着他们每天都在做自己喜欢做的事情
it means every day they’re doing something that they love to do.
所以他们很开心
As a result they’re happy
因为他们很开心他们是平衡的
and because they’re happy they’re balanced.
这就是平衡感
And it’s that sense of being balanced,
然后奠定了基础 在这一年余下的时间里保持高效
then lays the foundation to be productive for the rest of the year.
所以对于现在房间里任何想要提升分数的学生来说
So for any student in the room right now who’s looking to move up their marks,
有三件事你们所有人都需要注意
there’s three things you all need to consider.
第一件事我们已经说过
Number one as we already said
不要过高估计智商的重要性
don’t overestimate the importance of IQ
或者 不要担心它 它是你无法控制的
or just don’t worry about it, it’s out of your control.
第二件事是不要以只是努力学习为目标
Number two don’t aim to just work hard
但是 相反 努力学习去做正确的事
but instead work hard doing the right things.
以模仿优秀学生正在做的事情为目标
Aim to model what the top students are doing
因为事情就是如果你得到正确的过程
because the thing is if you get the process right,
然后是你要关注自己的分数或成绩或学校成绩
then the marks or the grades or the results of school you’re going to take care of themselves.
谢谢大家
Thanks a lot.

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译制信息
视频概述

演讲者通过图表,研究,发现优秀学生和普通学生的不同。

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

全幼儿园最困

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Na8m4GPqA30

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