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“智能药丸”将如何影响你的大脑 – 译学馆
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“智能药丸”将如何影响你的大脑

What Do "Smart Pills" Really Do to Your Brain?

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人类沉迷于让自己变得更聪明
We humans are obsessed with getting smarter.
所以除了特殊方法比如学校教育以及努力学习之外
So besides your typical methods like school and hard work,
我们也以提升智力为名义
we ’ ve also tried some pretty
尝试了一些奇怪的事情
strange things in the name of brain enhancement.
例如 尼古拉·特斯拉可能
For example, Nikola Tesla would supposedly squish
需要挤扁每只脚趾100次
his toes 100 times on each foot to
来刺激脑细胞 同样地 艾萨克·牛顿无法摆脱智力第一的名号
stimulate the brain cells, while Isaac Newtonstuck with celibacy.
或者只需要像在《药命效应》里布兰得利·库玻里所做的
Or there is just like popping some kinda magic pill
蹦出几个神奇的药片 吃了就很聪明那样
like Bradley Cooper does in Limitless.
益智药是
Nootropics are a group
一组可能提高类似于专注 注意和记忆
of chemicals that supposedly heighten things like concentration, attention,
的没有任何副作用的化学制品
and memory — without any side-effects.
它们就是所谓的智能药丸
They’re so-called “smart pills.”
有些药看似会影响脑化学反应
Some of these drugs do seem to affect brain chemistry,
但是科学家并不确定
but scientists aren ’ t sure if
它们至今是否有持续可测的效果
they have consistent, measurable effects yet.
并且因为它们现在只是处于实验阶段
And because they ’ re so experimental right now,
一时兴起吃了这些智能药
taking them on a whim probably isn ’ t
可能并不值得我们冒健康风险
worth the health risks.
认知不仅仅来源于大脑的一部分
Cognition doesn’t just come from one partof the brain.
它包括很多区域 化学制品 以及类似于记忆 感知
It involves many regions, chemicals, and processes like memory, perception,
注意力 和激励的过程
attention, and arousal
基本上 当你是清醒警觉时
— basically, when you’re awake and alert.
例如 很多建立在
For instance, many studies
动物模型上的学习和记忆组成与
on learning and memory formation in animal models involve
神经递质 谷氨酸盐有关
the neurotransmitter glutamate.
它是大脑里主要的刺激性的化学成分
It ’ s the main excitatory chemical in the brain,
这就意味着它会刺激神经元
which means it spurs neurons to send
去彼此传递信号
signals to each other.
神经系统科学家已经研究了大脑里的谷氨酸盐系统
Neuroscientists have studied glutamate systems
并致力于创造出
in the brain and worked to create drugs that
提高类似老鼠的动物体内的记忆表现的药物
enhance memory-related performance in animalslike rats and mice.
此项研究目的在于理解记忆的生物化学过程
A lot of this research is aimed towards understanding the biochemistry
并且最终
of memory, and eventually
帮助患者治疗记忆问题 例如老年痴呆症
helping treat patients with memory problems,like those with Alzheimer’s disease.
但是在啮齿动物大脑和人类大脑之间
But there ’ s still a huge gap
仍然有巨大差距 所以很多临床实验
between rodent brains and human ones, so many clinical trials
还并未起效
haven’t been super effective.
这是针对
And that ’ s the case for lots
影响认知不同部分的大量药物的例子
of drugs that affect different pieces of cognition. Yes,
是的 科学家发现有一些兴奋剂
there are some stimulants
很安全 有效 并且例如医生
that scientists have found to be safe and effective and doctors
会开处方 治疗注意力不集中症
prescribe to treat ADHD, for example.
但是 当涉及到改变大脑功能时
But there ’ s a lot of uncertainty
会存在很多不确定性
out there when it comes to altering brain function,
对于神经紊乱的每个人来说
and there aren ’ t silver bullets that work
这并不是一个良方
for everyone with a given neurological disorder.
除了不确定性之外
Despite that uncertainty,
益智药支持者说 各式各样的药物能
nootropic proponents say that this wide variety of drugs can be
被用来提升正常大脑功能的不同方面
used to improve different aspects of yournormal brain function.
主能要在某些方面帮助你 比如
Basically helping you, like,
记住在课堂上学到的知识来获得好成绩
remember what you learned in class to get better grades
或者 更加专注于工作
or focus more at work.
益智药的历史大约始于1964年
The history of nootropics kind of began in 1964
一个叫做科尔内留·久而贾的罗马尼亚化学家
with a Romanian chemist named Corneliu Giurgea.
想要制作一种优化大脑的药物
He wanted to make a brain-enhancing drug and
在第一次合成吡拉西坦之后
coined the term “ nootropic ” after synthesizing
他杜撰出一个新词“nootropic”
the first of its kind: piracetam.
吡拉西坦是一种作用广泛的药物
Piracetam is a broad-acting drug — it interacts
它与大脑里的很多东西相互作用
with a lot of different things in the brain.
其中一个就是谷氨酸盐受体
One of which is glutamate receptors,
我们知道它在学习和记忆上扮演着重要角色
which we know play a role in learning and memory.
关于此化学制品的较早的一项研究完成于1976年
One of the earlier studies on this chemical was done in 1976.
让来自加的夫大学学院的8名学生
8 students from University College
服用一日剂量的吡拉西坦
in Cardiff were given a daily dose of piracetam and 8
让另外8名学生服用没有任何作用的药
were given a pill that did nothing.
在一周 两周之后 给了他们一些记忆任务
They were all given a few memory tasks after 1 and 2 weeks.
在服用吡拉西坦的那组学生里
And in the group that took piracetam,
一周之后 对比另一组
the experimenters didn ’ t see a difference in
实验者并没有看到非文字记忆的差别
verbal memory after 1 week compared to the control group,
但是在两周后看到了差别
but did after 2 weeks.
所以 可能会存在一些缓和作用
So there could be some mild effect,
但是没有很多类似研究 我们不知道
but without many replication studies, we don ’ t know
事实上药物对学习有多大帮助
how much the drug actually helps with thiskind of learning.
一些研究员也测试了
Some researchers have also tested
是否吡拉西坦能帮助抵抗源于大脑疾病的健忘
whether piracetam could help fight memory loss from
或者 在某些重要手术之后
brain diseases, or help protect the brain
帮助防止大脑丧失功能
from losing function after certain kinds of major surgery.
但是 在几年的研究里
But there ’ s been a mix
可能存在消极和积极的结果
of negative and positive results across years of studies, so there
所以并没有足够的证据表明 它真的起作用
definitely isn’t enough evidence to saythat it helps for sure.
当涉及到益智药时 这仅仅是一个开始
And that’s just the beginning when it comesto nootropics.
自吡拉西坦之后
Since piracetam, there have been dozens
人们服用了很多药物 用不同的方式尝试
of drugs that people have taken to try and improve
提升认知
cognition in different ways.
例如莫达非尼
Like there ’ s modafinil,
这是一种觉醒剂 由FDA认可的治疗
which is a wakefulness agent and FDA-approved treatment for narcolepsy,
一种不需警告就能睡着的睡眠障碍的药
a sleep disorder where you can fall asleepwithout warning.
和吡拉西坦相似
Kind of like piracetam,
研究员认为莫达非尼能影响大脑里很多化学系统
researchers think modafinil could affect a lot of chemical systems
包括与机敏度有关的
in the brain — including transporters of dopamine,
多巴胺转运蛋白
which is involved in alertness,
以及与压力反应有关
and norepinephrine, which is involved
并能给人一种能量支持的 去甲肾上腺素
in your stress responses and can give an energy boost.
所以一些人尝试把它作为
So some people have tried using it
一种普通的益智药使用而非一种特殊治疗
as a general nootropic instead of a specific medical treatment.
在2015年的
A meta-analysis published
欧洲神经心理药物学杂志上发表的一篇合并24项
in 2015 in the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology pooled 24
去尝试以及理解药物的整体效果的
study results to try and figure out what the overall effect
研究成果表明
of the drug seems to be.
他们推论出 莫达非尼能帮助
They concluded that modafinil can help healthy people
担任行政职能的健康人
with executive function — things
比如计划 做决定 但是
like planning and decision making — but the effects
对于类似注意力等方面 作用是混杂的
on things like attention were mixed. Now,
现在 在服用益智药和认知之间的
it ’ s possible that any positive relationship
任何积极的关系
between taking nootropics and cognition could
会是一种安慰效果 这是可能的
be a placebo effect.
就是当药物不起任何作用的时候
That ’ s when a drug doesn ’ t really do anything,
但是你的心理暗示会使身体产生真实的变化
but your belief in it causes real change.
虽然可能更重要
Maybe more importantly, though,
因为我们不知道对药物的了解程度
there are some major health concerns because of how
所以会存在一些重要的健康问题
much we don’t know about these drugs.
因为并没有关于益智药的足够确定性的研究
Most nootropics are currently being sold
现如今大部分益智药
without FDA approval under categories like “ dietary
在没有FDA的认可下 并在类似饮食补充物
supplements” or “research chemicals,”because there haven’t been enough conclusive
或 研究化学制品的 类别下 售出
studies about them.
所以 对于益智药的含量和服用剂量
So there ’ s not much accountability
并没有很多可说明性
for how many nootropics are made and in what dosages,
它们不能保证安全性
and they can’t be guaranteed safe.
当你的脑化学混乱时 服用益智药会有点危险
Which is kinda dangerous when you’re messingwith brain chemistry.
比如 如果你让大脑有
For instance, if you flood the brain
太多谷氨酸盐发信号 神经元被过度刺激
with too much glutamate signaling and neurons get overstimulated,
这能导致非常坏的副作用
it can lead to pretty bad side effects
例如细胞死亡 癫痫
like cell death and seizures. Plus,
另外 任何种类的兴奋剂
any kind of stimulant,
很多益智药都属于兴奋剂 会使人上瘾
which is what many nootropics are, can be addictive and
如果服用不当 会造成 主要功能退化 和 抑郁
cause major withdrawal and depression if usedinappropriately.
尽管某些药可能会有在短期内
And while some of these drugs might show positive effects
在认知和记忆方面有明显效果
on cognition and memory in the short term,
但我们还没有研究其长期效果
we haven’t studied long-term effects.
所以现在益智药实验是一种冒险
So experimenting with nootropics is a riskright now. And,
事实上 当涉及到健康的大脑 事情类似于锻炼
really, things like exercise,
一个好觉 适当的节食可能是
a good night ’ s sleep, and a thoughtful diet are
一个更好的开端 或者
probably a much better place to start when it comes to a healthy brain. Or,
你可以订阅科学展示精神分析频道
you could subscribe to SciShow Psych and get smarter
一周两次和我们一起变得更加聪明
with us twice a week!
如果你想了解更多
And if you want to learn more
关于我们开始使用药物去改变大脑的时间
about when we started to use drugs to change our brains,
请观看关于医生是如何偶然发现精神病学药的视频
check out our video about how doctors accidentallydiscovered psychiatric drugs.
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视频概述

智能药的药物成分和主要作用成分以及现如今智能药发展现状

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

葭月十三

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJKzERURJnk

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