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关于多相式睡眠 科学家到底知道什么? – 译学馆
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关于多相式睡眠 科学家到底知道什么?

What Do Scientists Really Know About Polyphasic Sleep?

[ ♪ Intro ]
[片头音乐]
Conventional wisdom says we’re supposed to get 8 hours of sleep a night.
人们普遍认为 我们晚上的睡眠时间 应该达到8个小时
Fewer of us actually do,
事实上能做到的人特别少
with the CDC reporting that a third of American adults snooze for less than 7.
美国疾病控制与预防中心公布 三分之一的美国成年人 睡眠时间达不到7个小时
Now, the current consensus from sleep researchers is
目前 睡眠研究者们的普遍共识是
that we need to sleep for long enough, continuously enough, and deeply enough
我们需求足够长久 连续 深沉的睡眠
to receive the proper benefits of sleep.
以便 能够获得相当的睡眠好处
And that’s a long list of benefits…
睡眠好处可以列成一张长长的清单
like top cognitive performance, proper storage of memories,
比如 很好的认知能力 正确的记忆储存
or avoiding health problems like high blood pressure and obesity.
或者 防止诸如高血压 肥胖症之类的健康问题
We need sleep.
我们需要睡眠
But some people try to break their sleep into chunks
不过 有部分人设法将他们的睡眠分成几个时间段
instead of getting a single — or monophasic — stretch of Zs.
而不是 保持单个的 或者说单相式的 睡眠时间段
Despite the trends,
这种睡法尽管流行
there’s not much scientific evidence to suggest
但是 并没太多科学证据表明
polyphasic sleep is better than monophasic.
多相式睡眠比单相式睡眠更好
And some polyphasic sleep patterns are distinctly worse.
而且 某些多相式的睡眠方式 明显更加糟糕
We don’t fully understand how sleep works.
我们并没有完全弄懂 睡眠是如何运作的
The leading model for why and when you sleep
关于你为什么和在什么时候睡觉 最重要的模型
is called the two-process model.
被称为 双进程模型
It states that there are two, well, processes going on in your brain
它表示 在你的大脑里 发生着这样两种进程
that dictate how sleepy you are at any given time.
这两种进程决定着 你在任何特定的时间下 会感觉到有多困
One, called process C,
其中一个 被称为C进程
is a product of your circadian rhythm,
它是昼夜节律的产物
or the attunement of your brain to the cycle of day and night.
或者说 是大脑对昼夜循环适应的产物
Your biological clock is run out of your brain’s anterior hypothalamus.
你的生物钟受到下丘脑前部的控制
It ticks along in response to light,
生物钟的运作受到阳光的影响
and makes you sleepier at night.
它让你在晚上会觉得更困
The other, called process S,
另外一个 被称为S进程
is homeostatic,
它是内环境稳态的进程
which is to say
换句话说
it reflects the need for your body to maintain a steady state in all things.
它反映了 你身体需要让一切维持在一个稳定的状态中
We don’t know what exactly regulates process S,
我们不知道 究竟是什么控制着S进程
but it may have to do with the buildup and clearing out of chemicals like adenosine in your brain.
不过 它可能与大脑中化学物质 比如腺苷的累积和消耗有关系
The longer you’re awake,
你醒着的时间越长
the more sleepy process S makes you.
S进程就会让你觉得越困
And the longer you’re asleep,
而你睡眠的时间越长
the more likely it is to wake you up.
S进程就会更加有可能使你醒来
While scientists are still revising the two-process model,
尽管 科学家们还在修正双进程模型
those basic parts do seem to explain
不过 模型的基本框架 好像确能解释
why we sleep for a long time at night.
为什么我们在晚上会睡上很长的时间
Process S and process C can change as you get older,
随着你年龄的增长 S进程和C进程能够产生变化
and they operate independently from one another.
并且 两种进程彼此独立运作
So it’s possible to separate your sleeping patterns
因此 这有可能让你的睡眠模式
from the pattern of sunrise and sunset.
不再遵循日出日落的模式
And scientists use this fact
科学家们利用这个事实
to study sleep by placing subjects on an altered schedule.
通过改变实验对象作息安排的方式来研究睡眠
In one oft-cited 1992 study published in the Journal of Sleep Research,
在一项经常被引用的 1992年发表于《睡眠研究》期刊的研究中
7 participants were placed on a schedule
7名实验参与者的作息计划 被安排为
with 10 hours of light and 14 hours of darkness.
光照时间10个小时 无光照时间14个小时
Over the course of several weeks, they eventually took to
他们经过几周的时间 最终养成这样的睡眠习惯
sleeping in two blocks during the dark period,
他们在无光照的时候 分成两个时间段进行睡眠
with a few hours awake in between.
而两段之间则会有几个小时的清醒时间
This, combined with historical knowledge, is sometimes used to suggest
这个实验 结合历史知识 有时会被用来表明
that humans naturally adopted a biphasic sleeping pattern
人类在拥有使自己熬夜的电灯之前的时代
in the days before we had electric lights to keep us up.
会本能地采用两段式的睡眠方式
The idea of breaking up sleep into a polyphasic pattern, though,
不过 采用多相式睡眠方式的想法
has been taken to some extremes.
已经走向了某种极端
The scientist Buckminster Fuller somewhat infamously subscribed to the Dymaxion sleep schedule,
科学家巴克敏斯特·富勒因为提出了 Dymaxion睡眠计划 而有些名声狼藉
which involves 4 30-minute naps evenly spaced throughout a 24-hour period.
这种睡眠计划是 在24小时里间隔相同时间进行4次30分钟的睡眠
Some swear by similarly draconian napping schedules, like the Uberman,
有一些人对类似的严酷睡眠计划推崇备至 比如Uberman式的睡眠计划
totaling only a couple hours of sleep per day.
这种睡眠计划 每天总共也只有两个小时的睡眠时间
While others recommend longer “core” rests at night.
然而 另一些人则建议晚上应该有更长的“核心”睡眠时间
Napping in the afternoon, or taking a siesta,
中午打盹 或者说午睡
is technically a polyphasic sleep schedule,
严格说来 就是多相式睡眠计划
and it’s followed in many parts of the world.
世界很多地方都在采用
Breaking up your rests could work by affecting process S,
多相式睡眠产生作用的方式 可能就是影响大脑的S进程
basically resetting the make-you-sleepier ticker more often.
大致来讲就是 更加频繁地重新设置“让你更想睡觉”的时钟
However, polyphasic sleep isn’t well studied.
不过 对多相式睡眠的研究并不完善
When it is, it’s in the context of shift work,
多相式睡眠 总是出现在轮班制的工作环境中
like of people providing essential services in hospitals and fire stations.
比如 在医院和消防站的轮班制工作中
A 2014 study in the journal Chronobiology International
《国际时间生物学》2014年发表的一篇研究
argued that 12-hour shifts probably aren’t great for productivity.
论证了 12小时轮班制很有可能对生产效率没有好处
After 12 hours of work,
在工作12小时后
people may suffer from decreased alertness,
人们警觉程度可能会降低
especially at night
尤其在晚上
when their circadian rhythm is making them naturally sleepy. Instead,
晚上昼夜节律会让他们自然而然地犯困
the researchers proposed shorter schedules,
研究者们反而建议 更加短暂的作息安排
like 6 hours on and 6 hours off,
比如 工作6小时 休息6小时
or 4 hours on and 8 hours off.
或者 工作4小时 休息8小时
In the experiments they ran,
在他们进行的实验里
29 participants were put on
29名实验参与者的作息计划 被安排为
a 28-hour schedule with at least 9 hours of time in bed.
总时长28小时 其中睡眠时间至少达到9小时
Half were on a conventional light-dark schedule
其中一半参与者 采用传统昼夜式的作息安排
and half were broken up,
而另一半 则采用多相式的作息安排
with periods of 4.6 hours of rest and 9.3 hours awake.
睡眠时间4.6小时 清醒时间9.3小时
The two groups didn’t differ in their performance
在警觉程度和反应时间的测验中
on a test that measured their alertness and reaction times
这两组参与者的表现并没有区别
— even though participants on the split schedule
尽管 采用多相式作息安排的参与者
sometimes reported feeling less alert.
有时候会报告说感觉警觉程度在降低
And this led the authors to suggest
这让实验制定者们认为
that shorter work shifts with shorter rest periods
工作轮班时间短些 同时休息时间短些
could help shift workers.
这对轮班制的工人 是有帮助的
However, it’s important to note the
不过 重点要指出的是
participants still got in
这些实验参与者的睡眠时间
a solid one third of their “ day ” as rest.
还是整整占到了他们“一天”时间的三分之一
Less than that and you enter the realm of sleep deprivation,
你睡眠时间少于三分之一 就会进入睡眠缺乏状态
which comes with a list of symptoms
同时会伴随有很多症状
like anxiety, irritability, poor reaction times,
比如 焦虑 易怒 迟钝
and longer-term health risks like high blood pressure and diabetes.
以及 诸如高血压 糖尿病之类的健康危险
Some early sleep research failed to
某些早期的睡眠实验表明
show any ill effects
实验参与者每天睡眠时间只有4或5个小时
when participants slept for only 4 or 5 hours a day.
而并没有产生任何负面的影响
But now, researchers think those experiments were poorly controlled.
不过现在 研究者们认为 这些实验缺乏有效的控制
And more recent studies show
最近更多的研究表明
drop-offs in cognitive function when less than 7 hours are spent in bed.
睡眠时间没有达到7个小时 认知功能就会降低
Even worse, you may not know how exhausted you are.
更糟糕的是 你可能并不知道 你到底有多疲倦
Some studies, including one from the journal Sleep in 2003,
一些研究 其中包括2003年《睡眠》期刊上的一项研究
have found a disconnect between self-reported sleepiness and objective sleepiness
利用脑电图通过对脑电波活动的检测
as measured by electrical activity in the brain, with EEG.
已经发现了 主观上的困意和客观上的困意 是彼此分开的
Sleep-deprived people tended to think they
睡眠缺乏者往往认为
were way better off than their scores on cognitive tests actually indicated.
比起认知测试中真正得到分数 自己的认知状态要好上很多
And while it might be okay to break up your sleep a little,
尽管 睡眠时间稍微分隔一下 是没问题的
researchers have also studied sleep fragmentation
不过 研究者们还是对碎片化睡眠开展了研究
— when you wake up too many times during your rest period.
碎片化睡眠 指的是 睡觉时醒来次数过多的睡眠
For instance, many researchers think
比如 很多研究者认为
that uninterrupted sleep is necessary to store memories properly.
对正确的记忆存储而言 不间断的睡眠是必须的
A study published in 2012 in the journal PLoS One found
一项在2012年发表于《PLoS One》期刊上的研究
that subjects whose sleep was interrupted during a monophasic rest pattern
发现了 在采用多相式睡眠方式期间 间断睡眠的实验对象
had an impaired ability to form memories.
记忆形成功能方面 会受到损伤
So while we don’t understand everything yet,
那么 尽管我们还没有弄清楚所有的事情
it’s clear that we need sleep to be our best selves.
但我们清楚的是 我们需要睡眠来成就最好的自我
And our brains definitely need more than two hours.
而且 我们大脑肯定需要超过2个小时的睡眠时间
You can try to reprogram it if you want to,
如果你想要 你可以尝试对大脑重新编程
but it’s at your own risk.
不过 风险自负
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
谢谢收看本期《心理科学秀》
If you want to learn more
如果你想了解更多
about some groundbreaking discoveries biologists have made about sleep,
生物学家们对于睡眠领域的突破性发现
check out our list show all about it!
请收看我们所有关于睡眠的节目吧
And if you just want to keep getting smarter with us,
你要是想要和我们一起不断变得更加聪明
you can go to youtube.com/scishow
请登录网址youtube.com/scishow
and subscribe.
订阅我们吧
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[片尾音乐]

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