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眼睛能告诉我们什么? – 译学馆
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眼睛能告诉我们什么?

What do our eyes say about us? | BBC Ideas

Throughout human evolution,
纵观人类的进化
eyes have been vital to our survival.
眼睛一直对生存起着至关重要的作用
They’ve evolved to be round
它们进化成了球形
so that they can swivel to spot delicious prey
以便能够转动 找到美味的猎物
And easily roll when your cousin talks about
也可以在表亲第3次跟你说起他的新车时
his new car for the third time.
翻白眼表示不耐
But to get to that point,
但为了达成上述能力
our peepers have come a long way.
我们的眼睛经历了很长的演化史
They most likely developed from a tiny light-sensitive patch
它们极有可能是由单细胞生物上的
on single-celled organisms
某个微小光敏斑块进化而来的
that would help them move towards light in the hope of finding food.
单细胞生物 凭借光敏斑向光源移动 以盼望能够找到食物
As the creatures evolved
随着生物的进化
this patch started to curve inward
这个斑块开始向内凹陷
to better focus light.
以更好地聚光
And now, a whole bunch of evolution later.
现在 经过一系列进化后
what we’ve arrived at are two twinkling spheres
我们拥有了两只亮晶晶的眼球
that are capable of seeing about a million colours.
它们能看到大约一百万种颜色
Not bad, eh?
还不错 对吧?
We might actually be onto something with that
眼睛还有更多的奥妙
‘window to the soul’ stuff too,
比如”心灵的窗户”这类形容
as our eyes can portray more about our emotions
因为眼睛比我们想象的
than you might think.
更会“说话”
Your pupils dilate when you’re scared, nervous or excited.
当人害怕 紧张或者兴奋的时候 瞳孔会不自觉地扩张
That could be why they enlarge
这也许就是我们和别人眼神接触时
when we make eye contact with someone.
瞳孔扩张的原因吧
Like, like-like.
像 像是这样
Research has also shown that even making eye contact with a portrait painting
研究表明 就算是和一副肖像画眼神接触
sets off a whole raft of brain activity.
都能引发大量的大脑活动
Our eyes are also responsible for another
我们的眼睛还会对另外一个
universal emotional reaction
人人都有的情感作出反应
– a good old weep.
—哭泣
But we actually have three types of tears,
但实际上 眼泪有三类
each with their own chemical makeup.
每类都有不同的化学成分
Basal, which lubricate the eye.
基本生理泪水 会湿润干涩的眼睛
Reflex tears, caused by irritants like dust or chopped onions.
应激泪水 由像灰尘和碎洋葱那样的刺激物引起
And psychic, or emotional tears,
还有心灵的 或者说情感性泪水
the kind that appear when you find out
比如你在知道小鹿斑比妈妈的遭遇后
about Bambi’s mum for the first time.
留下的泪水
When it comes to our pupils,
说起瞳孔
it’s not just the size of them that varies –
它不仅仅会变大变小
the shape of an animal’s pupils
动物的瞳孔形状
can tell us if it’s predator or prey.
还能告诉我们它是捕食者还是被捕食者
Some have horizonal pupils,
有些动物拥有横瞳
making them more adept at scanning for predators
便于在吃草的时候
while munching on grass…
发现潜在的捕食者
found on your local goats, sheep, and moose.
山羊 绵羊 和麋鹿都有横瞳
Vertical pupils like those found on foxes, cats and crocodiles
狐狸 猫和鳄鱼则拥有竖瞳
are better for ambushing and hunting at night,
这种瞳孔能更好地
and have become synonymous with animals
在晚上进行伏击和捕猎
that you just do not want to mess with.
竖瞳已经成了那些你不会想招惹的动物的代名词
Our round pupils are kind of a best of both worlds
我们的圆形瞳孔则能两全其美
and help us in active foraging and chasing down prey.
帮助我们积极觅食和追捕猎物
Which, you know, we totally do, all the time.
是的 我们确实会追捕猎物 并且一直在这样做
There are quite a few animals who do a better job of seeing than we do.
有不少动物的视力要比我们的好
The elephant hawk-moth,
比如象鹰蛾
which sounds like that band your dad might have been in,
(这名儿听起来跟你老爹会参加的乐队的名字似的)
was the first animal proven to be able to see colour
它是第一种被发现在黑夜里
in the dead of night.
能够看到颜色的动物
Their large, sensitive eyes allow the maximum
它们敏锐的大眼睛能最大化地
available light to pass through.
接收到任何光照
However, this does impact their ability to detect fast-moving objects
然而 这也影响了它们觉察快速移动的物体的能力
like a rolled-up newspaper.
比如一卷报纸
Human eyes might not be perfect.
人类的眼睛并非是完美的
Parts of them are even useless,
有部分甚至是没有用的
like that little pink bit in the inner corners.
像这个角落里小小的粉色那块
That’s the remains of a third eyelid
这是第三眼睑的残存
like the ones cats, dogs and camels have.
猫 狗 和骆驼会有第三眼睑
Our eyes aren’t just physically interesting,
我们的眼睛不仅生理结构有趣
but culturally too.
从文化层面上看也一样有趣
Much loved by conspiracy theorists the world over, The Eye of Horus
阴谋理论家十分感兴趣的 荷鲁斯之眼
may symbolise the Illuminati to some,
尽管在有些人看来是光照派的代表
but its origins lie in Egypt
但它其实源于埃及
where the eye is a symbol representing
在埃及 荷鲁斯之眼象征着
sacrifice, healing and protection.
牺牲 治愈和保护
In Turkey,
在土耳其
some believe that a sideways glance can cause genuine pain.
有人认为瞥眼会带来不小的疼痛
And thinking back to high school,
回想高中那会儿
they’re not wrong.
嗯 这个说法还挺有道理
Glass pendants, also eye-shaped, are worn to
大家戴着眼睛形状的玻璃吊坠
protect against this evil eye.
以免受这种邪恶眼神的伤害(滑稽)
So whether round, monolid, hooded,
不管是圆眼 单眼皮 上眼皮下垂的
downturned, upturned or almond,
下垂眼 上翘眼 还是杏眼
words you’re probably familiar with if you spend as much time
如果你像我一样经常看美妆视频
watching makeup tutorials as me,
这些词就会十分熟悉
your eyes are unique to you.
不管什么形状 你的眼睛都是独一无二的
The two are even unique to each other.
甚至 你的每“只”眼都是独一无二的
But one thing does unite us all…
但有一件事是我们全人类都共通的
we can’t for the life of us keep them open when we sneeze.
打喷嚏的时候眼睛一定会闭上

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视频概述

what can eyes tell us?简单介绍了人类的眼睛

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

克里斯托

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slHkSBj-g-A

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