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自然和人工香精究竟是什么意思?

What Do 'Natural' and 'Artificial' Flavors Really Mean?

[开场乐]
[♪INTRO]
如果让你在两个看起来很美味的蛋糕中做选择
If somebody gives you the choice between two tasty-looking snack cakes —
一个标着“天然香精”
but one is labeled ‘naturally flavored’,
另一个则标着“人工香精”
and the other ‘artificially flavored’–
大多数人都会选
most people would probably
天然的那个吧
go with the natural one.
(因为)它听起来更好
It sounds better.
毕竟谁想要吃假的东西呢
Who wants to eat food that’s fake?
我就喜欢真的食物
I like real food.
但那些标签其实误导了我们
But those labels can be pretty misleading.
事实上香精的化学性质都是一样的
In fact, the flavorings could be chemicallyidentical.
“天然”或“人工”这样的标签是按照规则来的
There are rules to what gets labeled “natural ” or “artificial”,
但二者的差异很微妙
but they’re pretty subtle.
你完全不用
And you definitely don’t need to
担心人造香精是否健康 是否破坏生态
avoid artificial flavors to stay healthy or be eco-friendly.
有时候选择天然的那一个的
The only reason you might want to opt
唯一理由不外乎就是
for the natural version in some cases is its … just,
它的味道吗
its flavor?
美国食品药品管理局明确
In the US, artificial and natural flavors are defined
定义了天然香精和人工香精
by the Food and Drug Administration,
但食品经销商有权利决定
because that’s the agency that gets a say
如何售卖以及给食品添加标签
in how companies market and label their foods.
那么首先 “香精”这个东西
So first, the term “flavors”
本身就是一种佐料
itself refers to ingredients that are in the food mainly
主要目的是为了食物的口味而不是营养价值
for their taste, rather than any nutritionalvalue.
(就如)苹果派中有苹果的所有味道
So an apple in an apple pie would certainly be adding to the overall flavor,
但在技术上这不算是一种香精或调味
but it would not technically be considered a flavor or flavoring.
食品药品管理局认为
And the FDA considers something a ‘natural’ flavor
“天然”香精来自于动植物
if it comes from a plant or animal.
也就是任何实质上的东西
That source could be virtually anything:
水果 树皮 药草 蔬菜 肉类
fruit, bark, herbs, veggies, meats.
这样的东西有很多
The list is long.
但只要是来自于动植物的 就是天然的
But if it’s made from a plant or animal,it’s natural.
否则 就是人工的
If not, it’s artificial.
人工的比天然的可能更复杂些
It does get a little more complicated than that,
但在大多数情况下
but in the vast majority of cases,
二者唯一的区别就是来源
the difference between the two is only the source.
在美国这会被特别指出
We’re sticking to specifics of the US here,
大多数其他国家
but plenty of other countries differentiate
也同样循序这个规则
these flavors along the same lines,
所以在食品包装这方面的要求差不多
so you’ll see similar claims on their food packaging.
似乎很简单 但想想
Seems simple enough, but if you think
我们平时吃的你就明白
about how we experience flavor, you can see why
FDA虚构的整个二元体系
this whole binary system the FDA has cooked
并不是必要和有用的
up is not necessarily all that useful.
什么使得你最爱的巧克力薯片饼干如此美味
Because what makes your favorite chocolate chip cookies so delicious
归根结底为你所闻到 品尝到的分子
comes down to the molecules you taste and smell,
而跟分子来自哪无关
not where those molecules come from.
它们都是化学品
They’re chemicals,
不论是来自于天然的还是实验室合成的
whether they come from natural sources or are made from scratch in a lab.
并且在很多情况下
And in many cases,
人造的分子和天然的分子相差无几
the molecules in natural and artificial flavors are exactly the same
这取决于原子以及它们是如何结合的
— down to the placement of each atom andbond.
对大多数普通的香精来说
That’s because for a lot of common flavors,
我们知道它们的主要化学物质
we know the main chemical behind them,
不论是从水果中提纯还是额外合成
and whether you purify it from fruit or make it synthetically,
混合物还是混合的混合物
a compound is a compound is a compound.
当你做饼干的时候可能会使用香草
Take the vanilla you might use when you bake cookies.
香草中主要的香精
The main flavor component of vanilla —
也就是大众认为甜甜的 有特别的味道的物质
and the one we recognize as having that sweet,
在化学上称为香草醛
characteristic taste — is a chemical calledvanillin.
通过混合香草豆荚 水和酒精
You can naturally extract it from vanilla beans
可以萃取出天然的香草醛
by soaking them in water and alcohol.
实验室也能合成完全一样的化学物质
Or, you can make the exact same chemical in the lab.
如果想用纯天然的方法
If you go the all-natural route,
要费一大笔钱 因为香草豆荚
expect to pay big bucks, though, because vanilla beans
是一中热带名贵兰花的果实
are the fruits of finicky tropical orchids.
它们的生长和结果很困难
They’re a huge pain to grow and harvest.
并且香草是世界上最受欢迎的香精
And vanilla is the world’s most popular flavor,
我们无法广泛种植
we can not grow enough beans to flavor
从而让我们想要的一切都加上香精
everything we want using only the real stuff.
还有另一种方法可以获得天然香草香精
There is another natural way to get vanilla flavor,
用一种叫做海狸香的香料
with something called castoreum, but
但这可能不太被大众喜欢
that’s not likely to be a fan favorite.
因为海狸香来自于海狸液囊
That’s because it comes from the castor sacs
而液囊位于尾巴下面
of beavers, which are located down near their tails.
主要来说 香精会经由海狸屁股
Basically flavoring via beaver butt.
通过挤压出海狸的分泌物
Milking beavers for their secretions is
这也不是一个高产的方法
not exactly a high-volume industry either,
所以海狸香因价格高昂而一般不做食物用途
so, castoreum is too expensive to put in most foods.
但在实验室
But in the lab,
用纸浆或石油衍生物做一些奇幻的化学反应
you can make the same vanillin in huge batches and for much less money by
就可以花更少的钱得到更多一样的香草醛
doing some fancy chemistry on paper pulp orpetroleum derivatives.
相比于从豆荚中提取这可能会降低食欲
That may sound less appetizing than gettingit from the beans,
但记住:你最后得到的分子是完全一样的
but remember: the molecule you get at the end is exactly the same.
这也是现在大多数香草味食品的来源
And, it’s how we’re able to vanilla-fy most of the foods we eat.
之所以写人工香精
So maybe don’t write off artificial vanilla just
就只是因为它不是天然的
because it’s not natural.
你还能省下大笔钱呢
You’ll save some big bucks.
关于环境危害大众也有些错误的想法
Then there are also some misconceptions aboutthe environmental impact.
听起来可能很不可思议
Counterintuitive as it might sound,
但天然香精有时候对自然也不是那么友好
natural flavorings aren’t always so great for nature.
比起人工香精 天然的甚至有时候影响更大
They can have much bigger environmental footprints than their artificial counterparts.
如玛索亚内酯 一种尝起来像椰子的化学品
Take massoia lactone, a chemical that tastes like coconut,
在东南亚某些树的树皮中
which you can find in the bark
就含有它
of certain trees in Southeast Asia.
棘手的是如果你为了它而剥树皮
The tricky part is if you strip off the bark to get it,
这棵树也就死了
you kill the tree. So,
我们想要有尽可能多的椰子的味道
as much as we might want to have that lovely pina colada flavor,
但天然的
the natural version
是低效的 不可持续的
is really inefficient and unsustainable.
不过实验室合成的可以替代它
Whereas synthetic chemists can whip up massoia lactone in the lab,
不用去剥树皮
no tree stripping necessary.
老实说 人造香精也不是对地球完全无害
Granted, artificial flavorings aren’t perfectfor the planet either.
它们通常由油制成
They’re often made from oil,
有时还需要些对环境不友好的材料
and can require special materials that aren’t environmentally-friendly.
产品也会造成污水
Production can also create wastewater.
但总比毁掉那么多树
Still that’s usually better than killing entire grows
用无数的水果来提取特需的香精
of trees or going through thousands
要好得多吧
of kilos of fruit in search of specific flavorcompounds.
由于味道这个缺点 使得实验室要求严格
There is one major downside to keeping thingsstrictly in the lab, though: the taste.
因为人工合成的香草醛
Because while synthetic vanillin is the same molecule
和香草豆荚中的分子一样
you’ll find in the stuff from vanilla beans,
真的香草中含有许多混合物可以微妙的改变味道
real vanilla has hundreds of other compounds that subtly change the flavor.
人造香草香精是一个相当好的替代品
Artificial vanilla is a pretty good substitute
因为80%的香草味道都来自于
because around 80 % of vanilla flavor comes
同一种香草醛混合物
from that one vanillin compound.
大多数人尝不出区别
Most people can’t tell the difference.
因为另外味道那些更难合成
But other flavors are much harder to replicate.
例如 人造草莓香精挺美味的
Artificial strawberry might be delicious, for example,
但你仔细想想
but if you think about it,
这压根就不是草莓味
it doesn’t really taste like strawberries.
因为仅凭一两种化学物
That’s because you simply can’t
并不能很好的还原你想要的味道
reproduce that flavor very well with one or two chemicals.
它超级复杂
It’s super complex.
所以人造香精
So the purity you get with artificial methods
就没有那么丰富的味道
may sometimes make for less-sophisticated flavors.
此外
On the other hand,
这也意味着科学家们要很熟悉那些味道
it also means that those flavors are better-known to scientists,
测试要更严格
and more rigorously tested.
如果这跟你想的不一样 那不止你这样认为
If this runs counter to your intuition, you’re not alone.
食品包装上很自豪的写着:非人工
Packages proudly proclaiming’no artificial
并想要以此来吸引大众
flavors’ are trying to appeal to the common
使得大众认为
feeling that substances
来自大自然的天生就比人工的
from Mother Nature are inherently safer and better than ones
更好更健康
invented and produced by people.
这称为自然主义谬误
That’s called the naturalistic fallacy.
自然的不代表永远可靠
But nature isn’t infallible,
市面上有很多天然的东西
and there’s all kinds of stuff out there that’s natural,
但反而更能杀害你
but will also super kill you.
仅凭来自于动植物
Just because a flavoring comes
并不意味着更安全健康
from a plant or animal doesn’t mean it’s safer or healthier.
这也是美国规定天然香精和人工香精都能使用的原因
Which is why US flavor regulations apply to both natural and artificial flavors.
它是一个叫做“一般认为安全”的系统 简称GRAS
It’s a system called Generally RecognizedAs Safe, or GRAS. Basically,
二十世纪中期
back in the mid-20th century,
FDA决定食品添加剂需要测试
the FDA decided that food additives should be tested,
即便在它被专家普遍认为安全
although they could be exempted from review
而无需检查后
if experts already agreed that the substance was safe.
这个条例自二十世纪五十年代末生效后
Since the rules took full effect in the late 1950s,
就禁止了两种调料
just two flavors have been banned,
一种天然一种人工
one natural and one artificial: calamus,
菖蒲 来自一种因根部很甜而出名的植物
which comes from a plant also known as sweet root;
以及氨茴酸肉桂酯 一种有葡萄或樱桃味的人造化合物
and cinnamyl anthranilate, a synthetic compound that gives a grape or cherry flavor.
有一些打着健康旗号的调料
Some flavorings have raised other types
如丁二酮 人造黄油调料品
of health flags, like diacetyl, the artificial
用于微波炉爆米花
buttery flavoring in microwave popcorn.
但如果大量吸入的话
If it’s inhaled in extremely large amounts —
假设你在爆米花厂工作
like if you work in a popcorn factory
却没有使用防护设备
and don’t use protective equipment
它可致使一种名为“爆米花肺”的肺病
— it can cause a lung disease known as popcorn lung.
但食用的话没有问题 所以放心使用
But eating it isn’t a problem, so we stilluse it.
理论上来说 尽管有这个测试系统
In theory, it’s still possible
我们日常使用的一些调料
that some flavors we use have minor negative health
还是有着我们所不知的较小危害
effects we just don’t know about, even withthis testing system.
曾有一种并发症被证明为某一产业群所造成
One complication is that the evidence is summarized by an industry group.
但自从对天然和人工这两类调味品出台法规后
But since the rules apply to both types of flavors,
人工调味品
there’s no reason to be extra suspicious
就不存在额外的嫌疑
of the artificial ones.
人工调味品“污名”的另一来源是
Another part of artificial flavoring’s bad reputation comes
食品被加工过这一事实
from the fact that it’s
这些食品通常不那么健康
in processed foods, which are less healthy
它们通常高糖高脂
for you — they’re often high in sugar
却缺乏纤维和营养素
and fat while also being low in fiber andnutrients.
但这并不是调味品的错
But that’s not the flavoring’s fault.
当然了 天然的也会被用于同样的食品
And of course, natural flavoring is used for the exact same thing.
或许最误导大众的例子就是橙汁
Perhaps the most misleading example of thisis orange juice.
美国人通过浓缩来最大程度获取橙汁
Americans used to get most of their orange juice from concentrate,
而那段时间
but these days,
大众趋向都购买它
we tend to buy it
包装盒上写着不需稀释
in cartons where the juice doesn’t need to be diluted.
这似乎是个更好的选择
It seems like a fresher option,
产品公司也这样来推广以此定一个高端价格
and companies have marketed it that way to get a premium price.
但这个果汁并没有它听起来那么新鲜
But the juice isn’t as fresh as they makeit sound.
由于大规模生产的现实
Because of the realities of large-scale production,
这些果汁最后放置在大容器中好几个月
the juice ends up sitting in tanks for months at a time.
为了防止它们损坏
To keep it from spoiling,
制作中会用巴氏法灭菌以及
producers pasteurize it and also remove all the oxygen in a process
有一个排气的过程来排出所有的氧气
called deaeration.
公平的说
To be fair,
加工是为了让果汁能安全引用
that processing is important to keep the juice safe to drink.
但同时也除去了一些
But it also removes a bunch of the nicer flavor compounds
令鲜榨果汁很新鲜的风味物质
that make freshly squeezed juice so refreshing.
这种果汁不一定经过浓缩
The juice might not be from concentrate,
但在它被包装之前
but companies still re-flavor it right before
公司一定会对它“提鲜”
it’s put in the carton,
这种包装在业界称为果汁包装
with what people in the industry call juice packs.
这种包装是很多调料的混合 通常来自
The packs are a mix of flavors, usually from oranges,
橙子 橙油或橙子香精
orange oil, or orange essence.
从技术上来说 它们是天然的
So technically, they have natural sources.
但这并不意味着它们
But that doesn’t mean the flavor is coming
来自于鲜榨的橙汁
from freshly-squeezed orange juice, or that
或仅凭天然并不代表加工少 更健康
the juice is somehow less processed and healthier because the flavorings are natural.
只要明白了“天然”
Once you find out what the terms “
和“人工”的正真意思
natural” and “artificial” really mean, you start
你就会发现市场上这种误导无处不在
to see this type of misleading marketing everywhere.
如果你现在还是很困惑
But if you think it’s confusing now,
再等个几年吧
just wait a few years.
因为生物技术的引进 这个界限更模糊
Because biotech is getting in on flavorings, blurring the lines even more.
而企业们则致力于
Companies are trying to come up
在目前的分类规则下
with new ways to make flavors that still count as ‘natural’
想出新的方法使调味品被归为‘天然’
under current labeling regulations —
即使这个来源是细菌或酵母
even though the source may be bacteria or yeast,
而不是任何可识别的动植物
rather than any recognizable plant or animal.
通过基因工程
With genetic engineering,
可以掌控微生物生产出特定的味道分子
you can program microbes to produce certain flavor molecules,
提取出分子后它们能像其他调味品一样使用
then isolate the molecules and use them justlike other flavorings.
这样做有时更高效 对环境更友好
That could be a more efficient and eco-friendly solution
尤其对难以获取的风味物质
in some cases, especially for hard-to-source flavor compounds.
但在某种程度上
But in a way,
这也使得食品包装上的标签更无意义
it would make the labeling claims on food packaging even more meaningless.
就像来自香草豆荚或某一种特殊酵母的
Like, is that all-natural vanilla flavor
香草香精都是纯天然的
from vanilla beans or a very special strain of yeast?
如果你想要天然材料为了更细腻的口感
If you wanted the natural stuff for the more nuanced flavor,
可是你却没办法知道
you’d have no way of knowing
该得到什么
what you were getting.
从现在起 别被那些宣称天然的就
For now, just don’t be fooled
更健康 更环保的言论
by claims that sticking to natural flavors is healthier
所糊弄到
or better for the environment.
味道和口感是基于
Tastes and flavors are based on chemistry,
化学和时间的
and a lot of the time, the artificial ones
人造的一样好
are just as good.
感谢收看本期科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
如果想知道更多有关风味化学的话
If you’re interested in learning more about flavor chemistry,
可以搜索我们以前的视频
you can check out one of our previous episodes,
食物中你必吃到的五种化学品
about 5 chemicals that are in everything you eat.
[背景音乐]
[♪OUTRO]

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视频概述

不要太过高看“天然的”,也别贬低“人工的”,二者有好有坏,物尽其用而已。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

秣子

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGg-g9TAzJg

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