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不同的脑电波分别代表着什么意思? – 译学馆
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不同的脑电波分别代表着什么意思?

What Do Different Brainwaves Mean?

不论你是在深度睡眠 考试 还是在看油土鳖视频
Whether you’re in a deep sleep, taking a test, or watching a YouTube video,
你大脑都在嗡嗡的活跃中
your brain is abuzz with activity.
有上百万的电子脉冲通过神经元之间
There are millions of electrical pulses passing between neurons
以此来互相发送消息
that are sending messages to each other.
当信号传递时 神经簇族便开始相互接受反馈
When those signals spread, clusters of neurons start getting feedback from others,
并且细胞网络同时激励
and networks of cells synchronize their firing.
于是形成一种重复循环或节奏:
It becomes a repeating cycle or rhythm:
脑电波 或者专业点的称呼 神经振荡
a brainwave, or as neuroscientists call them, neural oscillations.
这种有组织的电活跃强到足够被
That organized electrical activity is strong enough to be detected
一种检测在头皮上的电极的技术 脑电图学简称EEG所检测到
by electrodes on the scalp with a technique called electroencephalography, or EEG.
这使得我们能够通过脑电波来了解大脑的活跃
And that’s allowed us to study brainwaves to try to make sense of the brain.
虽然这些仍然很神秘 但最近我们有了一大发现
While things are still pretty mysterious, lately we’ve been making strides
可通过脑电波来读取意识 记忆 甚至某些疾病
to link brainwaves to things like consciousness, memory, and maybe even certain diseases.
当然 只看脑电波并不是万全之策
Now, brainwaves aren’t one-size-fits-all.
事实上它有许多不同的电信号 通过频率来定义
There are actually lots of different electrical patterns, defined by their frequency.
它们由周期或者每秒神经激活的次数来测量
They’re measured in cycles, or the number of times the neurons are firing, per second.
而脑电波也会有振幅的变化 频率越高振幅越小
Brainwaves also vary in amplitude, with lower amplitudes as they speed up.
这里有5种主要的类型 而它们的函数并没有严格的规则
There are 5 main types, and there’s no hard-and-fast rules about their functions.
但是 一般来说:波动频率越高 你就越警惕和清醒
But, generally: the higher frequency the wave, the more alert and awake you are.
所以这5种中最慢而振幅却相对较高的波动 叫做△波形
So the slowest of these 5 waves, which are of relatively high amplitude, are delta waves.
其一般与深度睡眠有着联系
They’re typically linked with deep sleep.
而波动稍快一点的是Θ波形 它与白日梦或冥想联系在一起
Slightly faster are theta waves, which are often associated with day-dreaming or meditation.
更快一点的是α波形
The next step up are alpha waves.
它常常出现在你在放松身心的时候 比如你闭着眼睛时
These are common when you’re awake, but relaxed, like when you still have your eyes closed.
β波形的频率又高了一台阶 振幅也更加低了
Beta waves are even higher frequency and lower amplitude,
并且出现在你清醒思考问题时
and seem to happen when you’re awake and thinking about something.
最后 频率最高 幅度最小的是Γ波形
The smallest, fastest oscillations are gamma waves.
它们出现在你进行深度思考的时候
They tend to be around when you’re deeply focused on something.
纵使我们目前讨论了你上课时出现的β波形
Now, even though we talk about beta waves when you’re in class
与在你熟睡时的△波形
or delta waves when you’re sleeping for simplicity’s sake,
然而事实是你的大脑在嗡嗡的会产生各种不同频率的波形
the reality is that your brain is abuzz with all different frequencies of waves.
只是特定的波形在特定的时间更主要些而已
It’s just that certain ones are more dominant at any given moment,
这取决于在此时你正在做什么想什么
depending on what you’re doing and how you’re feeling.
就好像如果你闭上眼睛 漂浮在凉快的泳池里
If you’re chilling at the pool, and sometimes closing your eyes
懒洋洋的晒着太阳时 你大脑里的α与Θ波形就会出现
to bask in the sun, you probably have a lot of alpha and theta going on.
但仍然有一些β波形混杂在里面
But there’s still some beta waves in the background.
可以看出大脑在整个事情中并不能精确的产生相同频率的波形
And it’s not like your brain has the exact same wave frequencies throughout the whole thing.
如果你在看EEG上的单个电极
If you look at the readings from individual electrodes on an EEG,
就会发现大脑的不同区域通常与某些波形相联系
you can see that different regions of the brain are more commonly linked with certain waves.
例如 α波通常在大脑后部
Alpha waves, for instance, are usually strongest at the back of the brain
的枕叶处活跃 一个管理着视觉的地方
in the occipital lobe, which handles vision.
有一件很神奇的事是脑电波中常见的频率
One of the amazing things about brainwaves is that these common frequencies
在不同物种之中惊人的相似 比如猫 蝙蝠和我们
are remarkably similar across different species, like cats, bats, and us.
但是同时 在个体之间它们又是完全不同的
But at the same time, they might be very different between individuals.
一些神经学学家甚至提出通过拍出大脑波形
Some neuroscientists have even proposed that a snapshot of all the waves
来识别个人 就像指纹识别一样
going on in a brain could be used to identify a person, like a fingerprint.
可以看出 在某些情况下 测量脑电波会非常有用
So, in some ways, measuring brainwaves could be very powerful.
比如 我可以通过查看你大脑中α波的何时衰弱
Like, I can probably guess the moment you open your eyes
来猜测你何时睁眼睛
just by looking at when your alpha waves drop off.
很神奇吧……
Kinda freaky…
而且医生们已经成功的通过EEG来诊断人们是否有癫痫
And doctors have successfully used EEGs to diagnose people with epilepsy.
通过脑电波峰值来判断是否有癫痫的症状
Brainwaves punctuated with spikes are tell-tale signs of a seizure.
但是首先我们仍然无法完全知道为什么我们会产生这些节律
But we still don’t fully understand why we have these rhythms in the first place.
一个认可度较高的说法是通过同步激活让
One popular idea is that the synchronized firing
神经元之间更好地互相传递信息
allows neurons to better communicate with one another.
最近的工作表明不同的脑电波可以帮助我们学习
Recent work even suggests that the use of different brainwaves helps us learn.
研究人员给猴子一个测验 让它们
Researchers gave monkeys a test, where they had to learn
通过不断摸索来学习图像配对
to associate pairs of images through trial and error.
他们发现当动物回答正确获得奖励后
They found that when the animals got an answer right and received a reward,
它们大脑通过β波形来与
their brains seemed to be using beta waves to communicate
海马区——大脑的记忆中心 传递信息
to the hippocampus, the brain’s memory center.
而猴子回答错误时Θ波形占主导
When the monkeys got the answer wrong, theta waves dominated.
由此可见 β波形可能是加强神经连接以此提高记忆
So, beta waves might be a way of reinforcing neural connections to improve memory,
而Θ波形则是告诉大脑“嘿 哎呦……没啥”
while theta waves are a way of saying to the brain, “hey, oops … forget that.”
神经学学家们也格外对Γ波形感兴趣
Gamma waves are especially interesting to neurobiologists, too,
因为老年痴呆者的大脑中Γ波形并不常见
because people with Alzheimer’s don’t seem to use them as much.
实际上 在老鼠的实验中 恢复Γ波形可减少
In fact, in experiments in mice, restoring gamma waves reduced
β淀粉样蛋白——一种与疾病有关的斑块蛋白 的数量
the amount of beta-amyloid, the plaque protein associated with the disease.
研究者们改造老鼠的神经元基因 使它们得以对光反应
The researchers genetically modified mouse neurons so they would respond to light,
然后在Γ波的频率下进行闪烁脉冲一周一天一小时
and then flashed pulses at a gamma wave frequency for an hour a day for a week.
与对照组相比 接受了改造的动物
The animals that received this treatment had half as many plaques
视觉皮层斑块减少了一半
in their visual cortex compared to controls.
该研究小组认为Γ活性以某种方式使大脑的免疫细胞
The team thinks that gamma activity somehow makes immune cells in the brain
更加适于吞噬斑块 外加也会改变蛋白质的处理过程
better at gobbling up the plaques, and also changes how the protein is processed,
从而首先导致斑块的减少
leading to less plaque in the first place.
科学家们并不确定Γ波为什么能这样做
Scientists aren’t sure why gamma waves would do this,
但是他们的研究表明 脑电波真的可以改变大脑的生物功能
but their work suggests brainwaves can actually change the biology of the brain.
这将是极其震撼的……如果你能想出引发人体内的Γ波的方式
And this could be huge … if you could figure out how to trigger gamma waves in people,
就可以将其被用于治疗中
they could be used as a treatment.
但是我们目前依旧没有什么办法去在人体中实现
But we really have no idea how to do that yet in humans,
而且 我们也不确定它是否真的有效
and of course, we don’t know if it’d actually work.
尽管如此 即使我们还没完全弄明白它们为什么存在和怎样运行的
Still, even if we don’t totally get why they exist or how they work,
但很清楚的是脑电波对大脑来说非常重要
it’s clear that brainwaves are pretty important.
解读出脑电活动与解读出
Understanding the electrical activity is just as important as understanding
大脑工作时所发生的化学过程的奥秘同样重要
the chemical processes when unraveling the mysteries of how our brains tick.
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脑电波对于大脑是很重要的,不同的脑电波代表着不同的意思,因此可用于医疗等事业之中,但不同的脑电波分别代表着什么意思呢?

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