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恐龙究竟长什么样?

What Dinosaurs ACTUALLY Looked Like?

The past is a vast and mysterious land
过去是一片广袤而神秘的土地
that begins at the big bang and ends in the present,
它始于大爆炸 止于现在
expanding with each passing moment.
并随着时间的流逝而扩展
It is the home of everything that came before, the key to understanding our present.
它是万物的家园 也是我们理解现在的关键
Here we find the most amazing creatures to ever roam our planet,
我们已发现了曾漫步于地球上最神奇的物种
hundreds of millions of species
数以百万计的物种种类
so diverse that our imagination cannot do them justice.
生物之多 以至于我们不能对其进行恰如其分的想象
Unfortunately the past carefully guards its secrets.
不幸的是 过去小心翼翼地守护着它的秘密
While there are a lot of things about the past we know,
虽然我们知道了不少关于过去的事情
there are way more things we know we don’t know.
但还有很多是我们知道自己不知道的
And worse,
更糟糕的是
there are probably even more things we don’t even know that we don’t know about.
可能有更多我们甚至不知道自己不知道的事情
Think of the wonder of life:
想想生命的奇迹吧
We now recognize about 1.5 million eukaryotic species
我们现在认识了大约150万种真核生物
but there may be as many as 10 million alive today.
但现存的却可能有多达一千万种
And although we are adding some 15,000 new species
尽管在我们的知识库里
to our collective knowledge each year,
每年都在扩充大约15000个新物种
the vast majority of life on earth is still undiscovered.
但地球上绝大多数生命仍未被发现
This is just what is around today.
这就是现在的情况
An estimated four billion species
据估计 在过去的千万年中
emerged on our planet in past eons
地球上出现过40亿个物种
But at least 99% of them died out, way
但在人类会说话之前
before humans spoke the first words.
其中至少99%都灭绝了
The vast majority of all the different species that ever existed are so utterly deleted that
绝大多数曾存在过的各类物种都被彻底地灭绝了
they have become part of the “unknown unknown” part of the past,
他们已经成为过去 “未知的未知 “中的一部分
lost to us forever.
并永远地消失在我们面前
Or are they?
事实是这样的吗?
Could we use science and imagination to glimpse a shadow of the unreachable past?
我们能否利用科学和想象力来瞥见过往中无法触及的影子?
Let us start with what we do know.
让我们从我们所知道的开始
To learn about creatures of the past we need fossils,
为了解过去的生物 我们需要借助化石
any sort of remains preserved from past geological ages –
过去地质时代保存下来的任何遗迹
bones or shells, impressions or imprints, things preserved in amber.
像是骨头或贝壳 印痕或印记以及琥珀中保存的东西
The totality of all fossils on earth is called the fossil record
地球上所有这些化石的总和称为化石记录
and it is the most important window on the past we’ll ever have.
这是我们了解过去最重要的一扇窗户
For a dead animal to fossilize a number of things must go just right:
要想让一只死去的动物变成化石 必须具备几个要素
The right environment, timing and conditions.
合适的环境 时机和条件
And then the fossil needs to survive for millions or hundreds of millions of years
然后化石需要存在数百万或数亿年
and then get back to the surface –
然后回到地面
and then be discovered before natural processes dissolve it.
接着要在自然溶解之前发现它
So it is kind of a miracle that we have what we have and know what we know.
所以 我们拥有我们所拥有的 知道我们所知道的 这是一种奇迹
Take the dinosaurs since they were
以恐龙为例 因为
one of the largest and most successful groups of animals for some 165 million years
它们是约1.65亿年来体型最大和进化最成功的动物群体之一
and are also a lot of fun to animate.
而且制成动画也会非常有趣
What were they really like and what are we missing?
他们到底是什么样的 我们又错过了什么?
In the last 200 years
在过去的200年里
we’ve found tens of thousands of fossils from over 1000 dinosaur species.
我们已经发现了1000多种恐龙的数以万计的化石
Lately we’ve entered a golden era of discovery
最近 我们进入了物种发现的黄金时代
and about 50 new dinosaur species are discovered each year,
我们每年都会发现大约50个新的恐龙物种
expanding what we know and what we know that we don’t know about them,
这都在增加着我们对它们的了解和无知
which is amazing.
这是惊人的
But it also makes us aware of all the things lost to the past forever.
这也使我们意识到 所有这些东西都被永远地留在了过去
Imagine if we took all the animals that lived in the last 50 million years
试想一下 如果我们把生活在过去5000万年中的动物都拿出来
and randomly chose 10000 individuals from 1000 species to fossilize.
并从1000个物种中随机选择10000个个体作为化石
Think about all the things that would be missed,
想想所有那些会被错过的事物
or that seem too weird to be true.
或者那些看起来太奇怪而不真实的事情
Like the Giraffe,
比如长颈鹿
a yellow animal with brown patterns
这是一种带有棕色图案的黄色动物
that looks like a horse and an antelope had a baby,
看起来像马和羚羊生的宝宝
with a long neck and two tiny hairy horns.
长着长长的脖子和两个毛茸茸的小角
How many “dinosaur giraffes” were there?
有多少只“恐龙长颈鹿”?
Animals so weird and selected for ecological niches so specific
动物如此怪异 却被选择了如此特定的生态位
that evolution molded theirbodies very absurdly –
这种进化使他们的身体变得非常荒谬
today they might seem made up to us..
在我们今天看来 他们似乎是天生的
We know a lot of species are lost forever just because of the environment they lived in.
我们知道很多物种都是由于栖息地遭到破坏而灭绝的
For example, lush jungles basically prevent fossilization as the chances
例如 茂密的丛林基本上阻止了化石的形成
that an animal will be buried here are low.
动物被埋在这里的可能性很小
Countless scavengers of all sizes break down freshly deceased animals extremely quickly
无数大小不一的食腐动物以极快的速度分解刚死去的动物
and the soil is often so acidic that bones are dissolved.
而且通常土壤酸性太强 骨头会被溶解
And so fossils of dinosaurs from jungles are practically nonexistent.
所以丛林里几乎不存在恐龙化石
Today half of all known species live in the few remaining rainforests
如今 有一半已知物种的栖息地
that only cover 2% of earth’s landmass.
是在仅占陆地面积2%的热带雨林中
Millions of years ago when dinosaurs roamed earth,
数百万年前恐龙在地球上游荡时
jungles covered much more of the planet.
丛林覆盖了比现在地球上更多的地方
So besides some insects and other small animals trapped in amber,
所以除了被困在琥珀里的昆虫和其他小动物
there should be millions of species that emerged and vanished,
应该还有数百万的物种出现并且消失
without leaving any trace.
不留下任何痕迹
Trapped deep inside the unknown, unknown.
被困在未知的深处
But just in general biology trips us up.
但总的来说 生物学会绊倒我们
Look at your body.
看看你的身体
It’s mainly squishy, gooey, soft stuff.
它主要是又软又黏的东西
Which does not preserve well.
它们不易保存
What remains the longest are the crystalized parts of your bones
留存时间最长的是骨骼的结晶部分
and so most dinosaur fossils are bones or teeth –
所以大多数恐龙化石都是骨头或牙齿
usually fragments, not entire skeletons.
通常是碎片 而不是整个骨架
This means that almost all boneless or shell-less animals are practically wiped from the fossil record.
这意味着几乎所有无骨或无壳动物都从化石记录中消失了
If we take a look at the stunning diversity of weird animals
如果我们来看看那些奇异动物惊人的多样性
like worms, jellyfish and slugs alive today
比如蠕虫 水母以及今天还活着的鼻涕虫
we can only speculate what we are missing.
我们就能推测我们错过了什么
Although thankfully
幸运的是
many mostly soft and gooey species
许多软而粘的物种
also left us an incredible diversity of shells
给我们留下了许多种难以置信的外壳
that tell us an amazing amount about our past,
这些会告诉我们大量过去的事
so at least we have that.
所以我们至少有这些
Still when we think about all the boneless species
当我们想到所有无骨生物时
that may have existed in the last half billion years
它们可能存在于过去五亿年之久
even our best attempt at imagining them falls short.
即使我们尽力去想象它们 也无济于事
But it’s not like reimagining something based on its bones is straightforward
但根据骨头重新构想一个东西并不简单
and so the way we envisage what dinosaurs actually looked like
所以在过去几年里 我们对恐龙外貌的看法
has changed a lot in the last few years.
发生了很大的变化
In the past many illustrations had a bony, minimalistic look,
在过去 许多插图都是瘦骨嶙峋 极简主义的样子
with a toothy grin to signify fierceness and danger.
带着龇牙咧嘴的笑容 象征着凶狠和危险
But if we draw today’s animals in a similar way, based on their skeletons,
但如果我们根据它们的骨骼 以类似的方式画今天的动物
just for the fun of it,
仅仅为了好玩
we get the most bizarre creatures.
就得到了最奇异的生物
Elephants, swans and baboons that look like monsters right out of nightmares.
大象 天鹅和狒狒这些看起来就像噩梦中的怪物
So similar to animals today,
和今天的动物很相似
we should imagine dinosaurs with much more soft tissue,
我们可以想象恐龙有更多的软组织
fat bellies or chests, weird soft parts
肥胖的腹部或胸部 奇怪的柔软部位
like skin flaps, lips and gums
比如皮瓣 嘴唇和牙龈
and just more pronounced features
还有一些更明显的特征
that would make them seem like much more pleasant fellows.
那会使他们看起来更讨人喜欢
Some soft features actually leave distinctive traces on bones
一些柔软的特征实际上会在骨骼上留下独特的痕迹
that we can look for in the skeletons of extinct animals,
我们可以在灭绝动物的骨骼中找到这些痕迹
which is where today’s animals with similar features are really helpful.
这就是如今具有相似特征的动物非常有助于研究的地方
It’s a similar story with color.
关于颜色就有这么一个故事
Because we know what the feathers of living birds look like,
因为我们知道现存鸟类的羽毛是什么样子的
modern technology combined with the exceedingly rare fossils
现代科技结合极其罕见的化石
with preserved remains of fuzzy feathers
和保存下来的毛茸茸的羽毛残骸
give us a glimpse of the real colors of extinct dinosaurs.
让我们得以一窥已灭绝了的恐龙的真实颜色
We know that tiny Sinosauropteryx had a striped tail
我们知道微小的中华龙鸟有条纹的尾巴
and its tiny dino buddy Anchiornis huxleyi
而它的恐龙伙伴赫氏近鸟龙
was white and black with gorgeous red feathers around its head.
是黑白相间的 头上有华丽的红色羽毛
Still, for the vast majority of really any ancient extinct species
尽管如此 对于绝大多数古代灭绝物种
we have no real clue what color they were.
我们仍不得而知 它们是什么颜色的
But we know what modern dinosaurs, birds, look like
但我们知道现代恐龙和鸟类长什么样子
and here we find the most amazing variety.
并且我们发现了它们惊人的多样性
So some dinosaurs will have tried to blend into the background,
一些恐龙会试图融入环境
while others might have fielded aggressive color schemes .
而另一些恐龙可能会采用侵略性的配色方案
to attract mates or to appear dangerous
用来吸引配偶或显示危险性
Some might have had impressive decorations or colorful beaks.
有些可能有令人印象深刻的装饰或彩色的喙
Some may have been striped or patterned.
有些可能带有条纹或图案
Similarly we don’t know that much about dinosaur behaviour,
同样 我们对恐龙的行为也不太了解
although once again we can draw conclusions from existing animals.
尽管我们可以再一次从现存的动物中得出结论
For example even apex predators like lions spend a lot of their time lying around
例如 即使是像狮子这样的顶级掠食者 也会花很多时间躺在一起
and cuddling and licking each other and playing.
互相拥抱 互相舔舐 玩耍
Why would dinosaurs be so different?
为什么恐龙会如此不同呢?
When we first found the skull of T. rex with its mighty teeth
当我们第一次发现霸王龙的头骨时 它有着强大的牙齿
and probably the strongest bite of any land animal ever, t.
可能是陆地动物中咬合力最强的
we imagined a fierce and stupid beas
我们想象它是一头凶猛而愚蠢的野兽
But modern scanning technology has revealed
但现代扫描技术显示
that T.rex had a larger brain-to-body ratio
霸王龙的大脑与身体的比例
than some earlier giant meat-eaters.
比一些早期的大型食肉动物要大
And it probably had very sharp hearing, vision and sense of smell
它可能有非常敏锐的听觉 视觉和嗅觉
and was in all likelihood not a stupid animal.
很可能不是一种愚蠢的动物
So maybe T.rex was a cuddly fellow
所以 也许霸王龙是一个可爱的家伙
that spent a lot of time playing around
在吃饱的时候 它会花很多时间在周围玩耍
or impressing potential mates when it was not hungry.
或给潜在的伴侣留下深刻印象
Likewise, while their horns and shields
同样 虽然角龙拥有角和盾牌
might have made ceratopsids appear to be natural born fighters,
这可能让它们看起来像天生的战士
they were probably much more than that.
但它们可能远不止这些
Based on the behaviour of modern animals
根据现代动物的行为
and the complex dances some have to go through to mate,
以及一些动物交配时所跳的复杂舞蹈
maybe their shields were amazingly colorful,
也许它们的盾牌是五彩缤纷的
maybe it danced for its mates like many birds do today.
也许它会像今天的许多鸟类一样为配偶跳舞
How intensely amazing these creatures must have been.
这些生物一定非常惊人
And what a loss it is to us
不能亲身体验它们
that we don’t get to experience them first hand.
这对我们来说是多么大的损失
What an even greater loss
更大的损失是
that there is so much we will never know about them
我们将永远无法了解他们
and even more tragic,
更悲惨的是
all the absurd and beautiful beings that disappeared without a trace.
所有荒诞而美丽的生命都消失得无影无踪
But such is life –
但人生就是这样
time marches on without any concern for our feelings
在不顾及我们的感受的情况下
and the past expands with every moment that passes.
随着时间的流逝 逝去的事物也在不断扩大
Most wild animals alive today will in all likelihood not leave fossils behind and also
今天活着的大多数野生动物很可能不会留下化石
just disappear forever.
而将永远消失
We can do something about that though –
我们可以做点什么
instead of accelerating the extinction we are witnessing
比起加速我们正在目睹的物种灭绝
we could become the guardians of life
我们可以成为生命的守护者
and preserve it where we find it.
让它们在发现地继续生活
If possible in the wild,
如果可能的话 他们会在野外
if not then in museums, movies and in our minds.
如果不可能的话 它们会在博物馆 电影和我们的头脑中
Because as amazing as our imagination is,
因为尽管我们的想象力是惊人的
and as fascinating to think about the animals that are part of the unknown unknown –
思考那些属于未知中的未知动物是令人着迷的
it is even better to witness them in the present.
但在当下见证它们会更好
The land that we actually inhabit,
在我们真正居住的土地
where we get to experience life as it happens.
我们可以体验生活的本来面目
There is one more exciting way to experience Dinosaurs though this year:
今年有一个更令人兴奋的方式来体验恐龙
The 12,022 Human Era Calendar: Eons Edition.
12022人类纪元日历:万世版
As always,
一如既往地
we’re adding 10,000 years to the regular calendar to represent the Human Era
我们在常规日历上增加了一万年来表示人类时代
and include all cultures around the world.
包括世界各地的所有文化
But this year we’re expanding the scope beyond humanity
但今年 我们将视野扩展到人类之外
to showcase forgotten animals and
在12页精心设计的纸上
plants from all across the Phanerozoic Eon,
展示了显生宙所有被遗忘的动物和植物们
like giant armoured fish, scythe lizards or giant sloths, on 12 elaborate pages.
比如巨大的甲鱼 镰刀蜥蜴或巨型树懒
Witness how multicellular life has persisted for over half a billion years,
看看多细胞生命是如何存活了5亿年
surviving asteroid impacts, volcanoes and frozen oceans.
并从小行星撞击 火山爆发和冰冻的海洋中幸存下来的
And of course, pandemics.
当然 还有流行病
In the end life, uh, finds a way –
在生命的尽头 找到一种方式
and we want to celebrate that!
我们想要庆祝它
You can get the very shiny, high-quality, limited Edition now
你现在可以买到非常闪亮的 高质量的限量版
until we sell out and then never again.
等我们卖光 就再也不会有了
To support what we do on this channel,
请支持我们在这个频道上制作视频
to fill the void in your soul
以填补你心灵空虚
or just to have something beautiful to look at.
或者只是为了有一些美丽的东西可以欣赏
As every year,
与每年一样
we also have bundles and special calendar deals with some of your favorite products.
我们也有一些您最喜欢的产品和这个特别的日历相绑定的套餐
Thank you so much to all of the thousands of birbs who get the calendar every year,
非常感谢每年收到日历的成千上万的“小鸟们”
you enable us to create videos and to publish them for free, for everyone.
你让我们能够制作视频并免费发布给所有人
We wish you a happy year 12,022.
我们祝你12022年快乐

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视频概述

让我们对恐龙的外形和行为有一些更大胆的猜测

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mr.Freedom

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaQJbozY_Is

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