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霸王龙宝宝长什么样?

What Did a Baby T. rex Look Like? 🦖 Find out in T. rex: The Ultimate Predator (Now Open!)

大型动物的出现与消失
[LARGE ANIMAL INHALES, EXHALES]
马克 诺瑞尔:当人们听到“霸王龙”这三个字的时候
>>MARK NORELL: When people hear the word “Tyrannosaurus rex,”
他们能联想到的是一个巨大的 恶毒的
they think, like, big, vicious,
(轰隆隆的脚步声)
[THUNDERING FOOTSTEP]
处在食物链顶端的捕食者
apex predators.
但是我想改变人们对此的偏见
But I like to change people’s preconceptions.
欢迎来到这个大家族
Welcome to the family.
(舒缓的音乐) 诺瑞尔:
[LIGHT MUSIC] >>NORELL:
霸王龙第一次出现在差不多150万年以前
Tyrannosaurs first appear 150 million yearsor so ago. T.
雷克斯(霸王龙)是所有的霸王龙中最高级
rex was the most advanced,
最特别 也是体型最庞大的一个
the most specialized and the biggest tyrannosaur of all.
作为一名古生物学者
As a paleontologist,
能看见的大难题总是在增长
one of the big hard things to look at has always been growth.
因为恐龙宝宝和恐龙幼崽非常罕见
Because baby dinosaurs and young dinosaursare just so incredibly rare.
而这在很大程度上与它们的骨头非常脆弱有关
And largely that has to do with their bones are extraordinarily fragile.
因此 只是在最近的二十年里
So,it’s only been
稍有多一些的恐龙幼崽
in the recent maybe 20 years when more and more juvenile and baby
被发现了
dinosaurs have sort of been found.
让我们有机会
Which we’re getting a window
去看看这些动物的早期生命历史
into what the early life history of these animals was.
不管什么时候 打个比方 我们研究化石
Whenever, like, we work on any fossil group,
搭建模型或其他类似的东西
and we’re making models and that kind of thing,
会有各种各样的推测
there is a good deal of speculation.
但是很大一部分都来源于和它们密切相关的动物
But it’s informed speculation from lookingat closely related animals.
杰森·布雷格姆:
> > JASON BROUGHAM:
我想这是我们第一次对同一种恐龙
I think this is the first time we’ve ever made the same species of
成长发育的三个不同阶段进行研究
dinosaur at three different stages of itsgrowth and development.
丽贝卡·米亚:我被分配去研究成年雷克斯
>>REBECCA MEAH: I’m assigned to make theadult T. rex.
汉娜·拉维:我原先被分配到研究恐龙幼崽
>>HANNAH RAWE: I was assigned first to makethe hatchlings.
但杰森和我打算交换
And then Jason and I decided to switch because
因为我对四岁的雷克斯更感兴趣
I was more interested in making the four-year-old T. rex.
杰森·布鲁汉姆:而我更想研究恐龙幼崽
>>JASON BROUGHAM: And I wanted to do the babies.
在我们的展示中
In our show,
我们要让刚孵出的幼崽的毛
we’re going to have the hatchling be very densely fluffy,
像羽绒一样非常浓密蓬松
sort of like down feathers.
有点像你在鸵鸟幼崽或鸸鹋幼崽身上看到的绒毛
Sort of like what you see on a baby ostrich or a baby emu.
诺瑞尔:从我们已有的推理证据来看
> > NORELL: From all the inferential evidence we have,
这些动物会以像
these animals would have hatched
现在的鸡一样的方式孵出幼崽
out of an egg, just the way a modern chickdoes.
它们全身上下覆盖着毛茸茸的毛
They would have been covered with a fluffycovering.
当它被孵化出来的时候
It just would have looked
它会看上去像一只长相奇特的大鸟
like a really weird looking big bird when it came out of the egg.
我们并没有直接的证据去证明
We don’t really have any direct evidence
雷克斯霸王龙是否由亲代抚育
for parental care in Tyrannosaurus rex. However,
但我们确实有一些间接的证据
we do have some indirect evidence.
大部分现存的鸟类 包括原始鸟类
Most living birds, including, you know,
例如鸵鸟 鸸鹋和食火鸡
primitive birds like ostriches and emus
它们都存在某种程度上的亲代抚育
and cassowaries, they have some level of parental care,
不论是护巢
whether it’s nest guarding or bringing
还是喂养幼崽
food to their young.
与之相似的是 鳄鱼也保护它们的巢
Similarly, crocodiles guard their nests.
所以 至少在护巢这一方面
So, at least at the nest guarding level,
我们可以推测
we would predict, then, that tyrannosaurs would
霸王龙也存在某些相似的习性
have the same kind of thing.
刚出生的小霸王龙与其成年期相比
When a little tyrannosaur was born,
牙齿方面有非常大的差异
the teeth were a lot different than the adults.
如今现存的许多动物中
In lots of living animals,
尤其是大型爬行动物如科摩多巨蜥
especially big reptiles like Komodo dragons, they also go
它们从幼年期转变为完全成熟期
through an ecological shift of what they eat
食物也伴随生态转变而发生变化
from the time that they’re hatchlings and juveniles to full adulthood.
幼年时和成熟期的饮食是不同的
They have different diets.
所以 幼年期的小霸王龙是以昆虫和小爬行动物为食
So, the smallest ones feed on insectsand small reptiles.
但是 当它们成年后
But then when they’re adults they can even take down large animals,
它们可以吃掉那些几乎和它们一样重的巨大动物
like animals that weigh almost as much as they do.
成年大霸王龙捕捉食物主要是靠牙齿
As adults, the primary way in which the big tyrannosaurs hunted is that
它们的牙齿非常的坚固
they have these really deeply rooted, very stout teeth.
它们能够借助牙齿的咬合力咬断任何物体
So, they’re able to bite into things withsuch force
但这完全不同于狮子或美洲豹的咬合力
that it wasn’t like a lion or a leopard.
实际上 它们可以咬开任何东西
They would actually cause the thing to explode
因为它们撕咬的很疯狂
because they’re able to bite so hard, and
而它们的牙齿又恰好能够穿透骨头
their teeth could just go through bone.
它们可以吃掉一切
They could crush everything.
拉维:你觉得牙齿的形状像新月
> > RAWE: you know, you think of the teeth as being crescent moon-shaped,
但实际上
but in fact, it’s
它并没有那么弯曲
not as much of a curve.
我决定复原一只4岁大 紧闭嘴巴的霸王龙
I decided to sculpt the four-year-old T. rex with his mouth closed.
因为我觉得这样做自然研究比较有趣
Because I just kind of thought it was maybe more interesting as a study of nature that,
成年的霸王龙活着的时候
you know, the majority of the T. rex ’ s time spent alive,
它们的牙齿紧闭 这一点我很确信
I’m sure, was with their mouth closed.
实际上 我的工作有了真正的新发现
And I’m actually working
并且我发现了一个非常小的化石证据
off of a really new discovery and very little fossil evidence.
诺瑞尔:
> > NORELL:
成年的雷克斯霸王龙会使用它的微型手臂
There’s been a lot of speculation about what Tyrannosaurus rex used its miniscule
人们对于它这一行为背后的目的做了很多的推测
arms for when it was an adult.
但是 当一只雷克斯霸王龙最初破壳的时候
But when a Tyrannosaurus rex first hatches,
它的手臂相比成年期时较长些
the arms would have appeared quite a bit longer than they do in an adult.
一般来说 它的身体会比手臂生长的更快些
Basically, the body grows faster than the arms do.
所以 手臂的缩小不是指在尺寸上的缩小
So, it’s not like the arms diminish in size.
只是没有像身体其它部位长的那么快
They just don’t grow as fast as the rest of the body does.
在挑选了其他人的参考点后
One of the main things I think that we sort of used each other’s reference points
我认为最重要的点是霸王龙的手和脚
on were the hands and feet.
米亚:我们参考了一只鸸鹋(鸵鸟)
>>MEAH: We copied an emu-slash-ostrich.
如果你仔细观察雷克斯霸王龙所留下的脚印
If you look at, like, the footprint left by a T. rex,
霸王龙与鸸鹋的足迹几乎完全相同 所以
it looks almost identical to an emu footprint.So-
布雷格姆:但是霸王龙的足迹更加巨大
>>BROUGHAM: But much bigger.
米亚:是的 霸王龙的足迹更加的巨大
>>MEAH: But much bigger, yeah.
诺瑞尔:
> > NORELL:
幼年期的动物体型瘦长
When the animal was young, it was a really kind of, like, gangly animal.
步伐矫健
And it would have had a much more cursorial gait,
健步如飞
meaning it was a fast runner.
成年期动物恰恰相反 多半是隐匿的捕食者
As opposed to the adult, which was probably just a stealth predator.
我想 这跟老虎捕猎方法差不多
I mean, that’s the way tigers,
例如 老虎今天捕猎今天吃
for instance, hunt today and stuff.
与美洲豹捕食不同的是
Is that they’re not like cheetahs.
霸王龙永远不奔跑捕食和过度摄入食物
They don’t go running forever and run stuff down.
它们隐藏在灌木丛中 是潜伏的捕食者
They hide in the bushes and they’re ambush predators.
许多人想知道雷克斯霸王龙的皮肤是什么样的
A lot of people really wonder what the skin of Tyrannosaurus rex looked like.
或许和蜥蜴或者蛇的皮肤差不多
And a lot of them equate the skin of a tyrannosaur to be just like the skin of a lizard or a snake.
霸王龙的皮肤是有鳞片的 而且鳞片分布很是不同
And they were scaled, but scaled in a very different kind of way.
皮肤更像是被皮革所覆盖
The skin would be more like a leathery
如海龟的腿或者是鸡的脚
covering—what the leg of a turtle looks like, or even the foot of a chicken.
我们觉得成年期雷克斯是有羽毛的
Also, you know, we feel that even adult tyrannosaurs were feathered.
中国有一种恐龙叫羽王龙
There’s an animal from China called Yutyrannus,
它与雷克斯霸王龙的关系相当的紧密
which is a fairly close relative to Tyrannosaurus rex,
羽王龙化石显示
and spectacular fossils of it show
动物全身被羽毛所覆盖
that the animal’s completely covered with feathers.
布雷格姆:
> > BROUGHAM:
当我们没有所保存的皮肤样本时
When we don’t have specimens that preserve the skin texture, we have to
我们不得不以某种方式对皮肤肌理进行推测
sort of infer what it could be.
所以 对于每个模型
So, for each model,
你拥有的选择权很小
there’s a few choices that you have and you- you run them past the curator
并且观察这些选择是否真实可信
and see if they think they’re plausible.
米亚:
> > MEAH:
我觉得做好我们的工作才会让观众信服
I think where we like to do our best work is making it convincing to the audience.
诺瑞尔:
> > NORELL:
从被发现到现在 雷克斯霸王龙已经成为最有名气的恐龙
Since its discovery, Tyrannosaurus rex has been the most iconic, the biggest,
它形象鲜明 巨大无比 善于隐藏
the meanest, probably by far the best-knowndinosaur.
而且你知道的
And you know,
我们想带给观众新的体验和享受
we want to give people a very different look and appreciation for what a
让观众了解到雷克斯霸王龙的非凡之处
remarkable animal Tyrannosaurus rex was,
以及它的祖先是如何一步步进化成雷克斯霸王龙的
and the evolutionary steps that its ancestors went through to get there.

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视频概述

雷克斯霸王龙为何如此非凡,它究竟是什么样的呢?看科学家如何奏响这一古老的生命之歌!让我们走进霸王龙的世界,去探索生命进化的奥秘

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收集自网络

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Tanya

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审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PpxevS5MSjM

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