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多高的楼才算“摩天大楼”

What Counts As A Skyscraper? | ARTiculations

前几天我很随意得在网上浏览到世上最高
I was casually browsing a list of the tallest skyscrapers
摩天大楼清单
in the world the other day, because
因为你也知道 我总是空闲时间看这些
you know, this is what I do in my spare time,
我突然想知道
when I suddenly wondered
怎么才能算作为摩天大楼?
what actually counts as a skyscraper?
我住在一个11层的建筑里
I live in an 11 storey building,
当然这不能称为摩天大楼
surely that’s not considered a skyscraper.
看外面大楼在天空中映出的轮廓线
Looking at the skyline outside,
很明显这些是摩天大楼
it’s pretty obvious that these are skyscrapers, but what’s
那么什么才是摩天大楼的入门标准呢?
the bar of entry into becoming a Skyscraper?
所以 维基百科将摩天大楼定义为
Okay so, Wikipedia defines a Skyscraper
40层以上 大概150多米高的
as “ a continuously habitable high-rise building
连续可居住的高层建筑
that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m.
好了 感谢观看
Ok great, thanks for watching.
下次再见
I’ll see you guys next time.
好了 不是这样的
Okay so no.
再做了更多的搜索之后
After doing just a bit more research,
也浏览了维基百科的资料来源
and even just looking into Wikipedia’s sources
你会发现没有统一的
– you’ll find that there is actually no consensus
标准来解释摩天大楼一词
on what constitutes as a Skyscraper,
这是一个相对的概念 它的定义
it’s a relative term whose definition has evolved significantly
在上几个世纪发展显著
in the last few centuries.
事实证明 我所居住的建筑可被称为摩天大楼
Turns out, the building I live in could have been considered a Skyscraper
在19世纪末到20世纪初
Back in the late 1800s and early 1900s,
10层以上的建筑被称为摩天大楼
buildings taller than 10 stories were considered Skyscrapers.
这说得通
This made sense,
因为只有在转炉炼钢工艺的改进
since it only became possible to construct buildings that high after the
以及19世纪中叶第一台
refinement of the Bessemer steel production
安全电梯的产出后
process and the invention of the first Safety
才有可能建造出这样的高楼
Elevator around the mid 1800s.
完工于1885年的芝加哥的家庭保险大楼
The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, completed in 1885,
被认为是世上第一座摩天大楼
is generally recognized as the world’s first skyscraper,
因为它是首座使用钢网架的建筑
as it is the first building to utilize steel-girder construction.
10层以上的建筑
Structures taller than 10 storey buildings
在那之前当然也有 不过
of course existed before that time but they
它们需要大量的砌体基地和与自身同高的宽度
required massive masonry bases and often had to be as wide
就好比金字塔
as it is tall, such as the pyramids.
但是由于一些原因
But for some reason people don’t
即使它和比利时最高建筑几乎同高
consider the Great Pyramid of Giza as a skyscraper
但人们也没有把吉萨大金字塔称作摩天大楼
even though it’s almost as tall as the tallest building in Belgium.
随着21世纪建筑的高度
As buildings soared past each other
不断飙升
in height continuously throughout the 20th century,
至今仍旧是如此
which is something that’s still going on today,
显然人们对摩天大楼
obviously people’s standard of what
的标准也变得更高了
qualifies as a skyscraper has risen.
那现在摩天大楼的最低标准是什么呢?
So what’s the minimum standard for a Skyscrapernow?
仍然没有一致的说法
Well there’s no consensus,
一些人说至少40层 有人说50层
some say at least 40 storeys, some say 50.
也有人说应该是100层
Some think it should be 100.
缺乏定义的原因不仅仅在于
The reason for this lack of definition is not just
建筑的平均高度上升了
that the average height of buildings have grown.
更在于 “摩天大楼”一词并不是
It’s more so because “ Skyscraper ” is not actually a technical term used in the
一个标准的建筑业术语
architectural industry.
建筑师 内饰设计师还有工程师通常使用
Architects, interior designers and engineers generally utilize
“高层大楼”或“高层建筑”这样的术语
the term “High Building”or “High-rise Building.”
虽然国际上都没有对这两个词也没有统一标准
And while there is no global consensus on those terms’meanings either,
但是至少它们有更精确的含义
they are at least more precisely defined,
而且专家们在做设计决定时也会用这些词
and used by professionals to make design decisions.
国际建筑规范将摩天大楼定义为
The international building code defines a“High-rise Building” as a “building
具有可占用的楼层 高度至少超过消防部门通道
with an occupiable floor located more than75 feet (22.86m) above the lowest level of
的最低标准的75英尺(22.86米)
fire department vehicle access.”
我住的地方在加拿大安大略省
Here where I live in Ontario, Canada,
这里的高层建筑被建筑规范定义为
a “ High building ” is defined by the code as a building
18米或者36米高
either 18 m or 36 m high,
主要依据其用途和居住荷载来定义的
depending on usage type and occupant load.
你可能会想 谁会在乎怎样才算是摩天大楼呢?
You might think, who cares what counts asa high-rise?
但这挺重要的
Well it matters
因为地面上的消防装置不能
because floors above a certain height can not be reached by fire-fighting
触及到一定高度以上的楼层
equipment from the ground,
同时过高的楼层
and a building above a certain height can have a serious
会严重影响安全疏散
impact on evacuation.
因此 一旦建筑到达一定高度
And thus, once a building surpasses a certain height,
当设计时就要考虑更多因素
different design decisions have
如疏散口 制火系统
to be made regarding things like egress, fire suppression systems,
防火间距以及
fire separation, and
室内材料的选择
interior materials selection.
我刚意识到
I just realized like,
我90%的有关建筑和设计的视频
90 % of my architecture and design related videos
都与火有关
have to do with fire.
但这的确是很难回避的话题 不管怎样
Sorry it’s a really hard topic to avoid. Anyway,
即使“摩天大楼”不是一个行业术语
even though “ Skyscraper ” isn’t an industry used term,
我仍旧觉得这是个十分重要且有价值的词
I still think it’s a really important and valuable word
因为它体现了人类的欲望和野心
because it embodies humanity’s desires and ambitions.
我们千百年来一直试图登天
We’ve been attempting to reach the heavens for millennia,
无论是金字塔 哥特式大教堂
whether it’s the pyramids,gothic cathedrals,
现代玻璃塔 亦或是这些疯狂的近乎千米的尖顶
modern glass towers,or these insane kilometre tall spires.
我们对高度的追求一直没有停止
We keep trying to climb higher and higher.
这可能也是为什么许多人
And maybe that’s why most people
对摩天大楼的最低高度
don’t ponder too much about where the lowest line
不做过多的思量
for a skyscraper sits.
他们更多专注于上限
They’re mostly focused on looking up.
感谢大家的观看
Thanks for watching everyone.
你最喜欢的摩天大楼是哪一座呢?
So what’s your favourite skyscraper?
我要当一个传统主义者 能接受所有超过10层的建筑
I’ll be a traditionalist and accept anybuildings over 10 floors.
让我在你的评论里知道 或者发邮件给我@ARTiculationsV
So let me know in the comments or you can tweet me @ ARTiculationsV.
如果你喜欢有关设计和建筑的视频 可以订阅观看
And if enjoy videos about design and architectureplease consider subscribing.
如果你不想
And if you don’t want to
错过下一个上传的视频 那么你可以
miss the next video upload then maybe you want to think about
点击这个小铃铛通知图标
clicking that little bell notification icon. Ok,
好了 拜拜
bye for now!

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视频概述

人类一直在探索更高的地方,建造出一座座高楼大厦,那么到底要多高才算是摩天大楼呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Feeling🍉

审核员

审核员BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eM9WVb22FbU

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