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施舍的要义是什么 – 译学馆
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施舍的要义是什么

What Charity Really Means

它是基督教的七美德之一
It is one of the seven virtues of Christianity.
也曾是罗马伦理思想和犹太教教义的核心
It used to have a central place in Roman ethics and Judaism as well.
今天的我们都知道“施舍”的含义
Today, we remain deeply impressed by the idea of charity,
但往往只是雾里看花 并没有深入了解它的概念
but often from a distance, without probing the concept too deeply,
也没有尝试把这一点做到方方面面
with little attempt to practise it systematically.
我们会施舍的情况
It’s something we might have recourse to
多半是被电视上播放的纪录片所触动
when we’re moved by a documentary on the TV
或是度完假手里正好有些零钱的时候
or have some loose change left over after the holidays.
“施舍”最基本的定义是:
At its most basic, charity means:
向别人提供他们需要但无法自己获得的东西
giving someone something they need but can’t get for themselves.
而这个东西 人们通常认为它指的是物质上的
And normally that’s understood to mean something material.
我们在很大程度上将“施舍”视同于“给钱”
We overwhelmingly associate charity with giving money.
基督教的圣徒们就是这一善行的典范
The heroes of Christianity are exemplars of such charity.
圣弗朗西斯在城外偶遇一名可怜人
Outside the city, Saint Francis comes across a poor man.
发现他的衣着单薄褴褛
His garments are thin and ragged.
冬日就要来临 外套却贵不可及
Winter is coming on and coats are expensive.
圣弗朗西斯的内心大为震动 于是救济了他
The saint is moved to charity.
然而 从核心上来说 施舍绝不仅仅只关乎金钱
But, at its core, charity goes far beyond finance.
而是要意识到这个人需要你帮他
It is about recognising that a person needs help with something
做他们做不到的事情
that they can’t do for themselves
意识到他们的无助不是邪恶或罪孽的象征
– and that their helplessness is not a sign of wickedness or sin,
而是生而为人的一部分
but is part of the human condition.
我们乐于去给予 是因为想到了 有太多次
We freely give because we appreciate how often we wouldn’t have made it
在那些紧要关头 如果没有人施以援手
if other people had not – at key points,
自己根本就不会成功
in different contexts – cut us some slack.
在人际交往中 “施舍”的作用尤为重要
It is in relationships that charity becomes particularly necessary.
这里它指的并不是钱财 衣裳 或是免费的饭食
Here we don’t generally require the charity of money, cloaks and free meals.
而是我们所缺少的来自他人的理解
What we are short of is charity of interpretation:
是有人能用一颗宽恕的心
that is, a charitable perspective
来看待我们的脆弱 古怪 焦虑 愚昧
on our weaknesses, eccentricities, anxieties and follies –
对于这些过错我们无力解释也无法乞求怜悯
failings that we are unable to explain or win sympathy for,
因为它们来自我们的鲁莽冒失 也给别人带去了伤害
that we merely act out, with immaturity and hurt.
设想有这么一个人 他搞砸了他的工作
It might be that one person in a couple has badly messed up in their professional life.
他做了一个重大的决策 结果却糟糕至极
They made a significant decision at work that played out badly.
他被人痛批 还惹上官司
They got severely criticised; there was talk of court action.
那几个月 他焦虑不安 叫人难以相处
For months, they were very agitated, and hard to live with.
他不敢说出自己的恐惧 变得阴郁且暴躁
They couldn’t articulate their fears. They were sullen and irascible.
他的另一半也许会痛骂一顿他的领导
Their partner might have added stern admonitions to those of the regulator,
高管 或是社交媒体上的网民
the senior management and people on Twitter…
同时也得出结论:
They could have concluded
自己的枕边人愚蠢 贪婪 还有些卑鄙
that their partner was inept, greedy, maybe a bit unprincipled.
然而 一个“善施者”能够做到
But instead, a charitable soul
他的另一半做不到的事情
does the work the partner has not been able to do.
他们为他辩解
They do the explaining for them.
通过充分了解他的过往
They understand enough about their past
分析他的急躁性子和过高的抱负心从何而来
to have a picture of where their impatience and over-ambition came from.
他们把原因联想到他的父母
They hold in mind what happened with their parents
他的一次移民 或是他早逝的兄弟上面
and with the move to another country and with the brother who died too young.
他们在心里为这个“乞讨者”画了一幅画
They lend a picture of who the ‘beggar’ is
画里他的形象饱满而丰富
that is sufficiently generous and complex
绝不仅仅是他常常被人误会的“笨蛋”或是“怪胎”的样子
as to make them more than just the ‘fool’ or ‘weirdo’ they could so easily have been dismissed as.
一个真正慈悲的人会站在某个思想高度上慷慨布施
The genuinely charitable person gives generously from a sense
他们认为自己同样也是需要别人施舍和帮助的人
that they too stand in need of charity.
不在此刻 不在眼前 而在将来某个领域
Not right now, not over this, but in some other area.
他们知道人类的自以为是来源于忘性大
They know that self-righteousness is merely the result of a faulty memory,
永远都记不住——某些时刻我们的确是对的
an inability to hold in mind – at moments when one is totally right –
但也有许多时候我们大错特错
how often one has been deeply and definitively in the wrong in other contexts.
施舍的要义在于谨记 即使是穷凶极恶的人也会存有一丝善念
Charity remembers how there might still be goodness amidst a lot of evil.
筋疲力竭 不堪重负的人
Charity keeps in mind that if someone is tired and stressed,
会摆出狰狞凶狠的模样
they are liable to behave appallingly.
破口大骂的人
Charity is aware that when someone shouts an insult
往往嘴里冒出来的都不是真心话
they are not usually revealing the secret truth about their feelings.
他们试图伤害别人 是因为感觉自己受伤了
They are trying to wound the other because they feel they have been hurt –
而那个伤害他们的对象 他们却无法反击
usually by someone else, whom they don’t have the authority to injure back.
施舍的要义是思考着如何减轻别人的罪行
Charity is interested in mitigating circumstances;
如何拼凑点滴的真相 好让他们的过错看起来不那么致命
in bits of the truth that can cast a less catastrophic light on our follies.
在金钱施舍方面 施惠者与受济方通常是固定的
In financial matters, charity tends always to flow in one direction.
慈善家们都很慷慨
The philanthropist may be very generous,
是因为他们的家底一直都很丰厚
but usually they stay rich;
他们习惯了给予而不是接受
they are habitually the giver rather than the recipient.
但是在漫漫人生路上 特别是在人际关系中
But in life as a whole, and especially in relationships,
施舍和被施舍的对象不会是始终如一的
charity is unlikely ever to end up being one-sided:
弱者与强者的位置瞬息万变
who is weak and who is powerful changes rapidly and frequently.
这一秒你俯视众生 下一秒你就可能匍匐在地
You are likely to be, as it were, a patron in one area and a beggar in another.
所以保持一颗善施的心 不只是出于同情他人的遭遇
So we must be kind not only because we are touched by the suffering of others
而是要预见到 某天自己也可能落入水深火热的境地
but because we properly understand that we too will soon be urgent need
乞求别人施舍一些你曾经施予别人的怜悯
of an equally vital dose of charity in some other part of our life.

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视频概述

施舍不只是用金钱济贫扶困,它还指在情感上给予思想困境中的人理解、同情与支持。抛开经济方面的问题不谈,我们每一个人都可能在某个时刻成为渴望救助的可怜人,将心比心,这也许就是我们应当去慷慨施舍的原因。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

尤机灵

审核员

审核员T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EPjhpXTpHjs

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