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是什么导致了雷和闪电? – 译学馆
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是什么导致了雷和闪电?

What Causes Thunder and Lightning?

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吱吱 你在哪儿?吱吱?你在哪儿呀?吱吱
Squeaks, where are you?Squeaks, where are you? Squeaks?
噢 你在这里呀 吱吱
Oh, there you are!Squeaks.
没事的 吱吱 雷声有点大 甚至有时有点吓人
That’s ok, squeaks. Thunderstorms can get kind of loud. And maybe even a little scary sometimes.
但你知道吗?有时候当我们知道事情发生的原因
But you know what, sometimes thingsthat are frightening are little less scary
那些吓人的事情就没有那么恐怖了
when we understand what causes them.
我们可以通过提问 来了解事情发生的原因
And we can learn what causes things by asking questions.
这就是为什么我们收到来自4岁的小朋友埃莉诺的来信时会如此高兴
That’s why we are so glad thatwe heard from my friend 4 -year-old Eleanor
她询问我们:“闪电和雷声是怎么形成的?”
That’s why we are so glad thatwe heard from my friend 4 -year-old Eleanor
我相信吱吱也很想知道答案
I’m sure squeaks would like to know.
研究天气的气象学家也研究闪电和雷声
Experts called meteorologist study the science of weather including lightning and thunder.
我们可以用他们的研究成果来解释闪电和随之而来的雷声是怎么产生的
We can use what they’ve learned to explain what causes these bright flash of light and big booms that follow.
你也许不知道 其实闪电的形成原理在家里就能接触到
And you may not know it, but the science of what causes lightning can happen right in your own home.
你是否有过走过毛茸茸的地毯 然后握住门把手时 突然被电到的经历?
Have you ever walked across a fuzzy carpet and then when you reached for a doorknob, got a little shock.
要是有 那你就制造出了一个微型闪电球
If so, then you been part of making a mini lightning bolt.
你感受到的触电的感觉是由“静电电荷”产生的
That shock you’ve felt was caused by the build up of what’s known as a Static Electrical Charge.
静电电荷是一种会短时间存在于某处的微小电力
A Static Electrical Charge is just a little bit of electricity that stays in one place for a little while.
任何时候两种物体摩擦都有可能产生静电
Static Electricity can build up any time two things are rub together.
当你走过地毯时 你的身体会因为摩擦而带上一些微小电流
When you walk across the carpet, your body picks up tiny bits of charge.
然后在你去手握门把手时 这些电流就会传输到门把手上
Then when you reach for that doorknob, these charges jumping to the metal doorknob.
闪电的产生的原理和这个相同
And that lightning is caused by the same thing
只是在更大的一个范围中而已
Only on a much biger scale.
我们在雷雨天见到的云朵里有微小的冰晶
The kinds of clouds we’ve seen in thunderstorm have tiny bits of ice in it.
这些小冰晶互相碰撞 它们导致了云朵里面电荷的增加
And these little bits of ice bumping to each other.They cause electrical charge to build up inside the cloud.
当这些电量增加 它们就变得很强
And as this charge keeps building up, it gets stronger.
但是有两种电荷
But there are two kinds of electrical charge.
我们叫它们――正电荷和负电荷
We call them positive and negative.
不同的电荷会相互吸引并相互靠近 非常类似磁铁的原理
Charges that are different from one another will attract, or pull toward one another, a lot like magnets.
但在我们的问题中 云朵中的电荷是负电荷
But in our case, the charge in the cloud is negative.
云朵里的负电荷发现了地面上的正电荷
The negative charge in the cloud makes some spots on the ground get a positive charge.
当云朵里的负电荷与地面上正电荷刚好相遇时
And when the charges in the cloud and the charges on the ground are just right.
云和地面间就会产生闪电
A bolt of lightning jumps between the cloud and the earth.
气象学家们发现闪电也有不同的类型
And meteorologists have discovered that there are different kinds of lightning, too.
有些闪电从一朵云的一端传到另一端
Some lightning goes through from one part of cloud to another.
有些闪电从一朵云跳跃到另一朵云上
Some jumps from cloud to cloud.
还有些闪电出现在天空和地面之间
And some goes between the sky and the ground.
但所有的闪电都是因电荷的移动而产生
But it’s all caused by a moving electrical charge.
并且所有的闪电都很热
And all lightning is hot.
非常的热
Really hot.
而闪电撞击空气就产生了雷声
And that hit is what causes thunder.
空气是由微小颗粒构成的——雷声的形成就是基于这样一个事实
Thunder starts with the fact that air is made of tiny particles.
当这些小颗粒受热 它们就会移动地更快
When these little particles get heated up, they start to move around more quickly.
所以当闪电突然穿越空气
So when the hot lightning bolt suddenly move through the air,
它的热量就会刺激它周围的空气颗粒
its heat makes the air particles around it all excited.
所有那些突然受热的空气颗粒都开始快速移动
All those particles of suddenly hot airs start to move around quickly.
它们努力推开周围的冷空气
They push hard against the cooler air around them,
冷空气会带走许多能量 并迅速飞离闪电出现的地方
that air then flies away really fast where the lightning was with a lot of energy.
我们耳朵所听到的这些移动的空气颗粒发出的爆裂声 这就是雷声
Our ears hear this movement of the air particles as a loud bang of crackle, that’s thunder.
所以现在你就知道了
So now you know,
当云层里产生一个电子并移向一个相反的电子时闪电就产生了
lightning happens when an electrical charge build up inside a cloud and moves to an opposite charge.
而当闪电产生的热量传到空气颗粒 使得空气颗粒离开闪电时
And thunder happens when the heat from lightning causes the particles
雷声就产生了
that make up air to push away from a lightning bolt.
并且记住:当你对一些事情有任何时候不确定时就提出来
And remember when you are not sure about something, ask questions.
这会让你感觉好些
It just might make you feel better.
谢谢你的提问 埃莉诺
Thanks for asking, Eleanor.
如果你还有任何其它问题
And if you have questions for any of us here to forward,
请通过留下评论或者给我们发电子邮件以便让我们得知你的问题
let us kown by leaving a comment or e-mailing us,
我们的邮箱是kids@thescishow.com 下次见
at kids@thescishow.com, until the next time.
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视频概述

这是一篇关于闪电和雷声如何形成的介绍视频

听录译者

潘达君

翻译译者

z h k c

审核员

译学馆审核团D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fEiVi9TB_RQ

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