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为什么长跑能让人兴奋

What Causes Runner's High?

如果你热爱长跑 你肯定已经体验到了它所带给你的乐趣
If you’re someone who enjoys distance running, you might’ve felt a sensation of happiness,
跑步者的愉悦(runner’s high) 一般来讲是指运动带给人们的平静或轻微不适
calm, or reduced pain that sets in after a workout—commonly known as runner’s high.
早在20世纪80年代 人们就发现脑内啡会导致跑步者的愉悦
Since the 1980s, runner’s high was thought to be caused by chemicals called endorphins.
还记的《律政俏佳人》里的那句话吗
Remember the line from Legally Blonde?
运动带给你脑内啡 而脑内啡会让你兴奋
“Exercise gives you endorphins, and endorphins make you happy!”
但是 如今科学家们也不能确信这所有的一切(runner’s high)都是脑内啡导致的
But now, scientists aren’t convinced that endorphins should get all the credit.
他们认为 真正的罪魁祸首或许是内源性大麻素
The real culprit might be endocannabinoids, a group of chemicals in your body that act
通俗来讲 就是一类人体自身分泌的能像大麻一样让人兴奋的化学物质
like the compounds in marijuana that cause a high.
脑内啡通过与神经突触上的阿片类受体相结合
Endorphins bind to what are known as opioid receptors on neurons all over your body, affecting
影响疼痛信号的传导
other chemical signaling that your brain interprets as pain.
在过去 人们认为是脑内啡导致了这一切 因为它可以缓解肌肉疼痛
Because endorphins can cause pain relief in your muscles, they were thought to cause all the feel-good parts of runner’s high.
但是 结果发现脑内啡分子结构过大 无法通过血脑屏障
But endorphins, it turns out, are too big to pass through the blood-brain barrier, a
血脑屏障是一层薄膜 这层膜可以防止血液中的有害物质进入大脑
highly selective membrane that protects the brain from potentially harmful stuff in the bloodstream.
所以runner’s high不是脑啡肽导致的
So they probably don’t cause the general feelings of happiness that come with runner’s
它们无法运用于大脑细胞
high, because they’re not interacting with brain cells.
相反的 科学家认为这些都是内源性大麻素导致的
Instead, scientists think it might be the endocannabinoids.
内源性大麻素跟大麻里面的四氢大麻酚一样 都可以运用于大脑的神经系统
Endocannabinoids interact with the same systems in your brain as THC in marijuana does, but
与四氢大麻酚不同的是 内源性大麻素是机体自然生成的
your body naturally makes them.
很多缓解压力 降低疼痛敏感度的物质里面都含有内源性大麻素
They’re involved in things like soothing anxiety and reducing pain sensitivity.
2015年 一组研究人员证明了这一点老鼠在一个轮子上跑了大约6公里后产生了更多的内源性大麻素
In 2015, a group of researchers showed that mice produced more of an endocannabinoid called anandamide after running on a wheel for around
6 kilometers.
为了测试伴随着跑步者愉悦的疼痛缓解 将奔跑的老鼠和没有奔跑的老鼠放在热盘上 使其产生疼痛感
To test for the pain-relief that comes with runner’s high, mice who ran and mice who didn’t were placed on a hot plate to cause pain.
而在热盘上跑步的老鼠 其血液中有更多的大麻素 并且有长时间明显的激动
And the mice who ran had more anandamide in their blood and took longer to get noticeably agitated on the hot plate.
然后 研究人员再次进行实验
Then, the researchers ran the experiment again.
这次 他们给了一些跑步老鼠一种药物 它们可以阻止内啡肽产生任何影响 但是当老鼠被放在一个热盘上 它们在这方面表现得更平静
This time, they gave some of the running mice a drug to block endorphins from having any effect, but the mice still acted calmer when
they were plopped on a hot plate.
研究人员给其他老鼠用药物做了实验阻止大麻素与受体结合
The researchers gave other running mice a drug that blocks anandamide from binding to receptors.
这些老鼠更加焦虑和敏感 就像那些不跑步的人一样
These mice were more anxious and sensitive to the hot plate—just like the non-runners.
所以 根据这项研究 似乎是大麻素有助于缓解跑步者的疼痛和焦虑 但是内啡肽并没有太大作用
So, according to this study, it seems like anandamide contributes to the pain and anxiety relief of runner’s high, but endorphins
not so much.
至少在老鼠身上
At least in mice.
但是人类呢
But what about humans?
2012年 一项研究有一些人类 狗和雪貂在跑步机上跑了半个小时
In 2012, a study had a few humans, dogs, and ferrets run on treadmills for half an hour,
并发现血液中的内源性大麻素水平在人类和狗的进化中 它们都更适合跑步
and found that endocannabinoid levels in blood went up in humans and dogs—which are both better adapted to running.
2011年的一项涉及11名健康男性骑车手的研究表明 运动中产生的大麻素可能会增加神经营养蛋白水平
And a 2011 study involving 11 healthy male cyclists suggested that anandamide production from exercise might increase neurotrophin levels,
那是一种可以调节神经元间连接的蛋白质 具有一些抗抑郁作用
a kind of protein that can adjust connections between neurons, and have some antidepressant effects.
因为样本容量很小 所以很难说这些研究是否对我们所有人都有意义
Because of small sample sizes, though, it’s hard to say if these studies mean something for all of us.
所以很有可能内源性大麻素可能影响到跑步者的愉悦 但是我们关于我们的身体仍然有许多不了解地方
So there’s a good chance that endocannabinoids could be involved in runner’s high, but there’s a lot we still don’t understand
about our bodies!
谢谢你的提问 尤其是我们所有为这些问题的提供源源不断的答案的赞助人
Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon who keep these answers coming.
如果你想提出或者回答问题 又或者是提前几天看一些视频
If you’d like to submit questions to be answered, or get some videos a few days early,
就去patreon.com/scishow
go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了去youtube网站和订阅
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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视频概述

本片列举了一系列研究来说明:酰胺可以使一些动物列如老鼠和狗跑步时更加兴奋

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

darkke

审核员

vicky

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TElAJMm34IE

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