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急性焦虑症的病因和预防

What causes panic attacks, and how can you prevent them? - Cindy J. Aaronson

这只是你的心脏正和胸骨击掌 频率为50次/秒
The body becomes its own corset.
身体变成了它自己的束缚
Past, present, and future exist as a single force.
过去现在和未来凝聚成同一股力量
A swing without gravity soars to a terrifying height.
像没有重力的秋千 荡到了恐怖的高度
The outlines of people and things dissolve.
人与物的边界开始融化
Countless poets and writers have tried to put words
无数诗人与作家试图将急性焦虑症的症状
to the experience of a panic attack——
用文字描绘出来
a sensation so overwhelming, many people mistake it for a heart attack, stroke,
这是一种无法抵抗的感觉 因此 很多人将它误以为是心脏病发作 中风
or other life-threatening crisis.
或者是其他致命的危机
Though panic attacks don’t cause long-term physical harm,
尽管急性焦虑症不会对身体造成长期危害
afterwards, the fear of another attack can limit someone’s daily life——
之后 对于再次发作的恐惧会限制人们的日常生活——
and cause more panic attacks.
并使它多次复发
Studies suggest that almost a third of us
研究表明 我们之中有近乎1/3的人
will experience at least one panic attack in our lives.
会在一生中体验至少一次急性焦虑症
And whether it’s your first, your hundredth,
无论这是你第一次还是第一百次
or you’re witnessing someone else go through one,
又或是你在目睹他人发作
no one wants to repeat the experience.
没有人会想重复这一体验
Even learning about them can be uncomfortable, but it’s necessary——
甚至连了解急性焦虑症都会让人感到不适 但这是必要的——
because the first step to preventing panic attacks is understanding them.
因为避免急性焦虑症的第一步是了解它们
At its core, a panic attack is an overreaction to the body’s
急性焦虑症的本质 是对于身体感知到危险后
normal physiological response to the perception of danger.
产生的正常生理反应的一种过激反应
This response starts with the amygdala,
这种反应源自杏仁体
the brain region involved in processing fear.
它是一块负责处理恐惧的脑部区域
When the amygdala perceives danger,
当杏仁体感知到危险
it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system,
它会使交感神经系统兴奋
which triggers the release of adrenaline.
促使释放肾上腺素
Adrenaline prompts an increase in the heart and breathing rate
肾上腺度会使心跳及呼吸的频率加快
to get blood and oxygen to the muscles of the arms and legs.
让血液和氧气抵达四肢肌肉
This also sends oxygen to the brain, making it more alert and responsive.
它同时会增加大脑供氧 使大脑变得更活跃和警觉
During a panic attack,
在急性焦虑症发作时
this response is exaggerated well past what would be useful
这种反应被夸大了 远远超过了在危险情况下
in a dangerous situation,
必要的程度
causing a racing heart, heavy breathing, or hyperventilation.
致使心跳加快 呼吸沉重或过度换气
The changes to blood flow cause lightheadedness
血液流动的变化
and numbness in the hands and feet.
会使人感到头重脚轻和手脚发麻
A panic attack usually peaks within 10 minutes.
急性焦虑症的症状通常在10分钟之内达到顶峰
Then, the prefrontal cortex takes over from the amygdala
然后 前额叶脑皮层会接替杏仁体
and stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system.
使副交感神经系统兴奋
This triggers the release of a hormone called acetylcholine
这会让激素乙酰胆碱释放
that decreases the heart rate and gradually winds down the panic attack.
它会降低心率并逐渐平息症状
In a panic attack, the body’s perception of danger
在急性焦虑症发作时 身体对于危险的洞察力
is enough to trigger the response we would have to a real threat——and then some.
足够让我们产生应对真正威胁的反应 甚至不止如此
We don’t know for sure why this happens,
我们不知道究竟为什么它会发生
but sometimes cues in the environment that remind us
但有时 环境中那些勾起过去受伤经历的暗示
of traumatic past experience can trigger a panic attack.
能够引发急性焦虑症
Panic attacks can be part of anxiety disorders
急性焦虑症是焦虑症的一种
like PTSD, social anxiety disorder, OCD, and generalized anxiety disorder.
焦虑症还包括创伤后应激障碍 社交恐惧症 强迫症和广泛性焦虑症
Recurring panic attacks, frequent worry about new attacks,
反复发作的急性焦虑症 对于再次发作的频繁恐慌
and behavioral changes to avoid panic attacks
为预防发作做出行为的改变
can lead to a diagnosis of a panic disorder.
都可被诊断为恐慌症
The two main treatments for panic disorder
应对恐慌症的两种治疗方法是
are antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT.
使用抗抑郁剂和认知行为疗法 后者简称为CBT
Both have about a 40% response rate——
两者的有效率大约都为40%——
though someone who responds to one may not respond to the other.
然而 其中一种方法有效的患者 另一种方法不一定会对其有效
However, antidepressant medications carry some side effects,
然而 抗抑郁剂的使用会带来一些副作用
and 50% of people relapse when they stop taking them.
而且有50%的人在停用后症状会复发
CBT, meanwhile, is more lasting, with only a 20% relapse rate.
与之相比 认知行为疗法耗时更长效 不过只有20%的复发率
The goal of CBT treatment for panic disorder is to help people learn
认知行为疗法的目的 是帮助人们学习和练习使用具体的方法
and practice concrete tools to exert physical, and in turn mental,
这些具体方法轮流通过身体和精神方面
control over the sensations and thoughts associated with a panic attack.
控制与急性焦虑症有关的感受和思想
CBT begins with an explanation of the physiological causes of a panic attack,
认知行为疗法一开始会解释急性焦虑症发作的生理原因
followed by breath and muscle exercises designed to help people
接着是 为帮助人们有意识控制呼吸方式
consciously control breathing patterns.
而设计的呼吸和肌肉训练
Next comes cognitive restructuring,
接下来是认知重构
which involves identifying and changing the thoughts
其包括 发现并改变恐慌症发作时的
that are common during attacks—
普遍认知
such as believing you’ll stop breathing, have a heart attack, or die——
比如以为自己会呼吸停止 心脏病发作或死去——
and replacing them with more accurate thoughts.
以及 运用更正确的认知代替它们
The next stage of treatment is exposure to the bodily sensations and situations
治疗的下一阶段是暴露于通常使急性焦虑症发作的
that typically trigger a panic attack.
身体感觉和情况中
The goal is to change the belief, through experience,
这样做的目的是 通过这样的经历
that these sensations and situations are dangerous.
去改变患者对于“这种感觉是危险的”这种认知
Even after CBT, taking these steps isn’t easy in the grip of an attack.
尽管在使用认知行为疗法后 在发作时依旧不易采取这些步骤
But with practice, these tools can both prevent and de-escalate attacks,
但是通过练习 这些方法可以同时预防和缓解发作
and ultimately reduce the hold of panic on a person’s life.
并最终减轻焦虑对人生活的控制
Outside formal therapy,
除了正式治疗
many panickers find relief from the same beliefs CBT aims to instill:
许多患者 也在认知行为疗法旨在灌输的理念中找到解脱:
that fear can’t hurt you, but holding on to it will escalate panic.
那就是恐惧不会伤害你 但执着于它会升级你的焦虑
Even if you’ve never had a panic attack,
即使你从未经历过急性焦虑症
understanding them will help you identify one in yourself or someone else—
了解他们会帮助你发现自己或别人身上的急性焦虑症——
and recognizing them is the first step in preventing them.
正确辨别是预防急性焦虑症的第一步
Panic attacks could be a common symptom for those suffering from mental health disorders,
急性焦虑症对于饱受精神疾病困扰的患者来说是一个普遍的症状
like PTSD and OCD
例如 创伤后应激障碍和强迫症的患者
So what causes PTSD,
所以是什么引发了创伤后应激障碍
and what does it mean to have OCD?
得了强迫症又意味了什么?
Educate yourself with this videos.
通过这些视频自学吧

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视频概述

急性焦虑症的本质和治疗方法

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzFObkVRSV0

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