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濒死体验的成因

What Causes Near-Death Experiences?

我希望你从未有过濒死体验
Hopefully, you have never had a near-death experience.
但如果有过 很高兴你熬过来了
But if you have, I’m glad that you survived it.
也许此情此景听起来会很耳熟
Also, maybe this sounds familiar:
一道眩目的白光
A blinding white light.
你的一生在眼前闪现
Your life flashing before your eyes.
灵魂出窍
Floating out of your body
俯瞰你的躯体
and looking down on that body from above.
说实话这可能听起来都很熟悉
Honestly, it might sound familiar either way.
在这一点上 濒死体验
At this point, the near-death experience is
在大众文化中略显老套
a bit of a cliché in pop culture—
但它确实会发生
but this stuff really happens.
濒死体验很可能是由
Near-death experiences are most likely caused
很多不同的过程引起的
by a bunch of different processes,
科学家们还在研究它详细的机制
and scientists are still figuring out allof the mechanisms.
但不管怎样
But either way,
这些经历可能不像它们看起来那么神秘
these experiences probably aren’t as mystical as they seem.
濒死体验的记载可以追溯到古希腊
There are accounts of near-death experiencesgoing back to ancient Greece,
并且因为现代医学
and because modern medicine can bring people back
更能让人起死回生
from the brink of death more often,
所以这种经历就更常见了
they’re even more common now.
奇怪的是
What’s weird is
多数有这种经历的人都自称看到了相同的场景
that most people who have them report seeing the same kind of stuff.
白光
The white light.
灵魂出窍的体验
The out-of-body experience.
平和的感觉
A sense of peace.
行将就木的意识
An awareness of being dead.
这种经历如此普遍 以至有专门的问卷
The experiences are so universal that there’sactually a standardized questionnaire
来评估某人是否有濒死体验
to evaluate whether or not someone has hada near-death experience.
但它们发生的原因至今不明
But when it comes to understanding why they happen, things are less clear.
一方面 在医学 人口统计学或心理学上
For one, there’s virtually nothing medically,demographically,
所谓的“体验者”
or psychologically different about the so-called “experiencers”
与濒死的无体验者相比并没什么不同
compared to non-experiencers who have also almost died.
而且它们还很难研究
They’re also just really hard to study.
让人死在功能磁共振成像机里
It’s generally frowned upon to almost kill someone
是被广泛反对的
while they’re in an fMRI machine. Also,
此外 濒死体验的研究抽样大有问题
studies of near-death experiences havemajor sampling issues.
事后所做的研究依赖于
Studies done after the fact rely
体验者将自己视为参与者
on experiencers identifying themselves as participants,
这会造成严重的偏见
which can cause some serious bias.
但其他研究 如实验者需等待
But other studies, like ones where experimenters waited on call
病人心脏骤停才能进行的研究
for people to go into cardiac arrest,
难以找到足够的参与者 达到合理的样本容量
have a hard time getting enough participants for a good sample size. Also,
而且 在别人身旁等他们开始断气?
waiting around for people to start dying?
这工作可不太好玩
Not a super-fun job.
但即使它们很难研究
But even though they’re hard to study,
还是有很多观点说明这些体验的成因
there are tons of ideas about what could cause these experiences—
而且原因可能不是一种
and they’re probably not just caused byone thing.
一种观点是
One idea is
体验者并非真的经历了相似的体验
that rather than experiencers seeing and feeling the same things
才看到和感受到这些东西
because they’re actually having similar experiences,
能看到并感受到它们是因为他们主观的期望
they see and feel them because they expect to.
这种事经常发生 比如目击者的证词
This kind of thing happens all the time, like in eyewitness testimonies.
人们很容易受影响
People are pretty suggestible,
所以有理由认为濒死体验的刻板印象
so it’s reasonable to think that the clichés about near-death experiences
可能影响了人们濒死时真正的所见所感
might impact what people actually see andfeel during them.
另一种观点认为 濒死体验是人们对死亡威胁的心理反应
Another view is that they are a psychological response to the threat of death.
在20世纪30年代初
Beginning in the 1930s,
心理学家认为这些经历是人格解体的结果
psychologists suggested that these experiences were a result of depersonalization,
你感到与你的实体和正经历的事脱离了
where you feel detached from your identity and what’s happening to you. Basically,
就是说 你知道你快死了
you know you’re dying,
但你觉得自己完全从身体脱离了
but you feel completely detached from it.
这好像不是真的
It’s like it’s not real.
除此之外
Among other things,
这也可以解释为什么濒死体验会带来平静
that would also explain why near-death experiences cause calmness and peacefulness.
最近的研究认为
More recent research has argued that dissociation,
意识似乎与肉体的实际感受并没有关系
where your consciousness seems independent from your real,
分裂才是罪魁祸首
physical experience, is actually to blame.
白日做梦就是这一症状的正常案例
Daydreaming is a totally normal example ofthis,
但灵魂出窍是一个极端的案例
but an extreme case is an out-of-body experience.
有一些证据支持这个观点
And there’s some evidence to back this oneup.
各种各样的外伤常会导致分裂
All kinds of trauma often result in dissociation,
因此有临床试验来证明这一点
so there are tests to clinically identifyit.
这些测试要求反应者确定
The tests ask responders to identify
他们做这些事的频率
how often they do things like
如看电视时走神或忘记某件重要的事情
totally zone out while watching TV or have no recollection of an important event.
2000年的一项研究
A study from 2000 looked
调查了134名曾经濒死的人
at 134 subjects who had come close to death,
其中96人有濒死体验
96 of whom had had near-death experiences.
他们发现这些体验者在分裂测试中
They found that the experiencers scored much higher
得分更高
on the dissociation test,
也就是说 他们更容易走神
meaning they were more prone to mentally checkout of situations.
濒死体验也有可能
It’s also possible
完全或部分是由生理因素导致的
that near-death experiences could be entirely or partly biological,
有很多可能生理机制
and there are a number of possible mechanisms
可以解释体验者看到和感受到的东西
that could explain the things experiencerssee and feel.
例如 众所周知
For instance, the combination
恐惧与视神经缺氧同时发作
of fear and depriving the optic nerve of oxygen
会产生隧道视觉
has been known to cause tunnel vision. And,
而且当人们面对死亡的极端压力时
when faced with the extreme stress ofdying,
大脑可能会释放各种各样的化学物质来保护自己
the brain probably releases all kinds of chemicalsto protect itself,
这可能会产生其他奇怪的症状
which can lead to those other weird symptoms.
2004年的一项研究表明 灵魂出窍
A 2004 study showed that out-of-body experiencescan be triggered by
能通过刺激右颞顶交界区触发
stimulating the right temporoparietal junction,
颞顶交界处是大脑的一部分
a part of the brain that
它在处理环境信息
plays a role in processing information
以及区分自己和他人中发挥作用
from your environment and in distinguishingbetween yourself and others.
用氯胺酮麻醉剂做的实验也表明
Experiments with an anesthesia called ketaminehave also suggested that,
在压力下 大脑可能会释放神经递质 导致分裂
under stress, the brain might release neurotransmittersthat cause detached,
梦幻状态或幻觉的产生
dreamlike states or hallucinations.
其他的研究已经表明
And other studies have shown
刺激中脑一个叫
that stimulating a part of the midbrain
蓝斑核的部位可以释放去甲肾上腺素
called the locus ceruleus can release noradrenaline,
后者参与恐惧和压力反应
which is involved in fear and stress reactions
可以改变你的情绪和记忆
and can alter your emotions and memories.
这两个反应都与平和的情绪 幻觉
Both of those processes could be related topeaceful emotions, hallucinations,
以及你的一生在眼前闪现的感觉有关
and that sense of your lifeflashing before your eyes.
所以濒死体验可能是由
So it’s possible that near-death experiencesare caused by
所有这些因素 如生理因素和其他因素 共同造成的
a combination of all of these factors, biologicaland otherwise.
当然 这些研究也有批评者 他们举了一个不错的例子
Of course, there are critics of these studies—and they make a good case.
他们认为 如果这些是正常的生理机制
They argue that, if these are normal biologicalmechanisms associated
且与压力和死亡创伤相关
with the stress and trauma of death,
那为什么不是每个濒死之人都有呢?
why doesn’t everyone who almost dies have them?
我们不知道
We don’t know.
但是对于有这些的人来说
But for people who do have them,
有许多的
there are a whole bunch
科学解释能说明它们的成因
of scientific explanations for where theymight come from.
不管它们是由生物学 心理学 或是两者间的过渡因素引起的
And whether they’re caused by biology, psychology,or something in between,
濒死体验都可以告诉我们很多
near-death experiences can teach us a lot
关于大脑的工作方式
about how our brains work
以及我们称之为“意识”的诡异玩意儿
and that weird thing we call”consciousness.”
感谢您收看本期的心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
它是由Patreon赞助播出
brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
如果你想
If you’d
支持本节目 并帮助我们继续制作这类节目
like to help support the show and help us keep making episodes
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like this one, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
我们非常感谢每一个这样做的人
We very much appreciate everybody who does that.
[片尾曲]
[OUTRO ♪]

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濒死体验的研究及成因

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视频来源

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