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是什么导致了失眠?

What causes insomnia? - Dan Kwartler

是什么让你晚上失眠?
What keeps you up at night?
思考深层次问题?
Pondering deep questions?
为一次长途旅行兴奋?
Excitement about a big trip?
或是因为未完成的工作
Or is it stress about unfinished work,
一场临近的考试 或可怕的家庭聚会而产生的压力?
an upcoming test, or a dreaded family gathering?
对很多人来说这种压力只是暂时的
For many people, this stress is temporary,
因为它的根源很快能被解决
as its cause is quickly resolved.
但如果就是失眠所造成的压力本身导致你失眠呢?
But what if the very thing keeping you awake was stress about losing sleep?
这个看似无法解决的循环是失眠的核心
This seemingly unsolvable loopis at the heart of insomnia,
它是世界上最常见的睡眠障碍
the world’s most commonsleep disorder.
几乎任何事情都可能导致不眠的夜晚
Almost anything can causethe occasional restless night –
例如打鼾的伴侣 身体的疼痛或是情绪的困扰
a snoring partner, physical pain, or emotional distress.
然而极端的失眠
And extreme sleep deprivation
就像时差一样会打乱你的生物钟
like jetlag can throw off your biological clock,
对你的睡眠时间表造成严重破坏
wreaking havoc on your sleep schedule.
但在大多数情况下 睡眠剥夺是短期的
But in most cases, sleep deprivation is short-term.
最终疲倦会让我们都陷入沉睡
Eventually, exhaustion catches upwith all of us.
然而 一些长期病症比如呼吸系统疾病
However, some long-term conditions like respiratory disorders,
肠胃问题 以及其他疾病会让我们克服疲劳(无法入睡)
gastrointestinal problems, and many others can overpower fatigue.
随着不眠之夜的积累
And as sleepless nights pile up,
卧室就会和失眠的夜晚产生映像
the bedroom can start to carry associations of restless nights
并伴随着焦虑不安
wracked with anxiety.
临睡前 失眠者会感到压力很大
Come bedtime, insomniacs are stressed.
因此他们给大脑应激反应系统施加压力
So stressed their brains hijackthe stress response system,
身体里充满了对抗或冷冻的化学物质
flooding the body withfight-flight-or-freeze chemicals.
皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素通过血液循环
Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormonescourse through the bloodstream,
增加心率和血压
increasing heart rate and blood pressure,
并使身体变得过度兴奋
and jolting the body into hyperarousal.
在这种情况下 大脑正在寻找潜在的威胁
In this condition, the brain is hunting for potential threats,
使其无法忽视 任何轻微的不适或夜间噪音
making it impossible to ignoreany slight discomfort or nighttime noise.
当失眠者最终入睡时
And when insomniacs finally do fall asleep,
他们休息的质量会受到影响
the quality of their rest is compromised.
我们大脑的主要能量来源是脑葡萄糖
Our brain’s primary source of energy is cerebral glucose,
在健康的睡眠中
and in healthy sleep,
新陈代谢减慢 在醒着的时候保存葡萄糖
our metabolism slows to conserve this glucose for waking hours.
但PET研究表明 肾上腺素可防止失眠
But PET studies show the adrenaline that prevents sleep for insomniacs
也能加速他们的新陈代谢
also speeds up their metabolisms.
当他们睡觉时 他们的身体加班加点
While they sleep, their bodiesare working overtime,
燃烧给大脑供应能量的葡萄糖
burning through the brain’s supply of energy-giving glucose.
这种睡眠质量不佳症状会使失眠患者
This symptom of poor sleep leavesinsomniacs
在疲惫 困惑和压力的状态下醒来
waking in a state of exhaustion,confusion, and stress,
并周而复始这一过程
which starts theprocess all over again.
当这些压力和不安的周期持续数月时
When these cycles of stressand restlessness last several months,
它们被诊断为慢性失眠
they’re diagnosed as chronic insomnia.
尽管失眠很少导致死亡
And while insomnia rarely leads to death,
但它的化学机制类似于焦虑症发作
its chemical mechanisms are similarto anxiety attacks
比如那些经历抑郁和焦虑的人
found in those experiencing depressionand anxiety.
因此 遭受这些疾病中的任何一种
So suffering fromany one of these conditions
都会增加你经历另两种情况的风险
increases your risk ofexperiencing the other two.
幸运的是 有很多办法能打破失眠的循环
Fortunately, there are ways to breakthe cycle of sleeplessness.
管理导致兴奋过度的压力
Managing the stress that leadsto hyperarousal
是我们对失眠最好理解的治疗方法之一
is one of our best-understood treatmentsfor insomnia,
良好的睡眠习惯可以促进和睡前的关系
and good sleep practices can help rebuildyour relationship with bedtime.
确保你的卧室是黑暗和舒适凉爽的
Make sure your bedroom is darkand comfortably cool
以尽可能减少过度兴奋的 “威胁”
to minimize “threats” during hyperarousal.
在床上你只睡觉
Only use your bed for sleeping,
如果你睡不着
and if you ’ re restless,
就离开房间 做些让自己放松的活动
leave the room and tire yourself out with relaxing activities
比如阅读 冥想或写日记
like reading, meditating, or journaling.
通过设定有规律的作息时间来调节你的新陈代谢
Regulate your metabolism by settingconsistent resting and waking times
来帮助定位你身体的生物钟
to help orientyour body’s biological clock.
生物钟 或者说昼夜节律
This clock, or circadian rhythm,
对光线也很敏感 所以晚上要避免强光
is also sensitive to light, so avoid bright lights at night
告诉你的身体该睡觉了
to help tell your bodythat it’s time for sleep.
除了这些方法
In addition to these practices,
有些医生会开一些药来帮助睡眠
some doctors prescribe medication to aid sleep,
但没有可靠的药物可以帮助治疗所有病例
but there aren’t reliable medicationsthat help in all cases.
而非处方安眠药可能会非常容易上瘾
And over-the-counter sleeping pillscan be highly addictive,
导致戒断症状恶化
leading to withdrawalthat worsens symptoms.
但在寻求任何治疗之前
But before seeking any treatment,
确保你的失眠其实是由失眠引起的
make sure your sleeplessness is actually due to insomnia.
大约8% 的患者被诊断患有慢性失眠症
Approximately 8% of patients diagnosedwith chronic insomnia
实际上是患有一种不太常见的遗传问题
are actually suffering from a less commongenetic problem
称为延迟睡眠阶段障碍或DSPD
called delayed sleep phase disorder,or DSPD.
DSPD患者的昼夜节律
People with DSPD have a circadian
显著长于24小时
rhythm significantly longer than 24 hours,
把他们的睡眠习惯与传统的睡眠时间同步
putting their sleeping habits outof sync with traditional sleeping hours.
因此 当他们在特定的的时间难以入睡时
So while they have difficultyfalling asleep at a typical bedtime,
这不是因为压力增加
it’s not due to increased stress.
如果有机会
And given the opportunity,
它们将会按自己延期的时间表安然入睡
they can sleep comfortably on their own delayed schedule.
我们的睡眠和清醒周期是个微妙的平衡
Our sleeping and waking cycleis a delicate balance,
并且它对于维持我们的身心健康至关重要
and one that’s vital to maintain for our physical and mental wellbeing.
由于这些原因
For all these reasons,
值得我们花一些时间和精力
it ’ s worth putting in some time and effort
来维持一个稳定的就寝时间
to sustain a stable bedtime routine,
但是尽量不要因此而失眠
but try not to lose any sleep over it.

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视频概述

保持健康的睡眠时间有助于身心健康

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5Sl8LyI7k8

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