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通货膨胀是什么? – 译学馆
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通货膨胀是什么?

What Causes Inflation?

2015年6月 津巴布韦开始以5美元
In June 2015, Zimbabwe began offering an exchange
兑换175千万亿津巴布韦元
of $ 5 US dollars for $ 175 quadrillion Zimbabwe dollars.
2008年 其通货膨胀率达百分之5000亿
In 2008, their rate of inflation hit 500 billion percent,
不久后 津巴布韦放弃了他们自己的货币
and soon after, Zimbabwe abandoned their currency.
那么 津巴布韦的经济为何变得如此糟糕呢?
So,how did it get so bad,
通货膨胀到底是指什么呢?
and what exactly is inflation?
通货膨胀经常被描述为
Well,often inflation is described
太多的钱追逐太少的商品
as “ too much money chasing too few goods ”.
这意味着
What this means, is,
如果经济中流通的实物货币太多
if there’s too much physical currency floating around in the economy,
那么货币的价值就会被稀释
then the money’s worth is diluted.
通货膨胀和通货紧缩由政府严格管制
Inflation and deflation, are tightly regulated by the government.
但是倘若政府未能管制好
And if they weren’t,
不加控制的货币膨胀可能导致市场混乱
unchecked inflation of currency could lead to market chaos.
在严重的情况下 一个人的生活储蓄基本会变得一文不值
In severe cases, a person’s life savings could become essentially worthless.
影响通货膨胀的因素有很多
There are many variable factors that play into inflation.
一个因素是用户对货币的信心
One,is the confidence that users have in their currency.
自从金本位制度被废除后
Ever since the gold standard was abandoned,
基于贵金属的货币就不再具有真正的价值
money stopped having real worth, based on precious metals.
所以 现代货币有价值是因为
So,modern currency only has value because the government,
政府和公民说它有价值
and its citizens say it does,
而且他们相信它 然而
and they believe in it. However,
当政府对那笔钱的价值的担保
when the guarantee of that money’s value
受到某种严重威胁
by the government is threatened by something drastic,
比如发生战争 它的内在价值就会下降
like war, it loses some intrinsicvalue.
影响货币价值的另一个因素是
Another factor that affects the value of money is defined
经济中的购买和生产比率
by the ratio of buying and producing in the economy
即供求关系
— or “supply and demand”.
比如说 在一年内
In a year, let’s say,
如果每个人都购买了一定数量生产的商品和服务
if everyone bought the exact amount of goods and services
那么这个比例将是1比1
which were produced, this ratio would be 1 to 1,
价格就不会出现通货膨胀和通货紧缩
and there would be no inflation or deflation of prices.
然而 如果生产的商品多于或少于正常生产的商品
However – if more or less goods are produced than normal, or,
或者 多于或少于的人想要购买它们
more or less people want to buy them,
价格可能会波动
prices can fluctuate.
美联储通过长期的价格指数
The Federal Reserve keeps watch of inflation patterns,
或各种产品的通货膨胀率变化
via long-term “ price indexes ”
来观察通货膨胀模式
or the change in inflation rates for various categories of products.
CPI 即消费者物价指数
The “ CPI ” or Consumer Price Index,
和PPI 即生产者物价指数
and the “ PPI ”,or Producer Price Index,
是两种常用的衡量标准
are,two commonly used measurements.
一个是看消费者购买商品价格的水平变动
One looks at how much consumers are paying for products,
另一个是看生产者列出的价格
and the other looks at the prices listed by the producer.
没有政府的管制
Without government regulation,
市场供求的失衡可能会因为
an imbalance in a market’s supply and demand can be exacerbated
公众对货币缺乏信心而加剧
by a lack of public confidence in the currency.
当这种情况发生时 恶性通货膨胀和恶性通货紧缩可能会发生
When that happens, “hyperinflation” or “hyperdeflation” may occur and
正常项目最终可能会花费一小部分
normal items can wind up costing either a fraction,
或者是他们正常工作的几百倍
or several hundred times what they normally do.
例如 当1923年德国在努力偿还
For instance, when Germany was struggling to
第一次世界大战的债务时
pay its World War 1 debts in 1923,
投资者对他们的货币失去了信心 经济陷入了恶性通货膨胀
their currency lost investor confidence, and went into hyperinflation.
根据当时的报道
According to reports back then,
买一份普通报纸要花一推车的德国马克
a simple newspaper cost a wheelbarrow full of German Marks.
对于津巴布韦来说 恶性通货膨胀的最糟糕时期已经过去了
For Zimbabwe, the worst of their hyperinflation worth are past.
但直到现在 很多人仍然在用
But even presently, many continue to improvise their currency,
钢笔 糖果 泡泡糖等物
by giving change in things like:
充当货币
pens, candy, and bubble gum.
希望津巴布韦的货币能很快稳定下来
Soon,hopefully,Zimbabwe’s currency will stabilize,
并且人们能通过有效的货币体系
and people can continue to grow
继续发展市场经济
the market economy with an effective system of money.
如果你有兴趣了解津巴布韦
If you’re interested in learning more
和他们的其它情况 请看我们的视频
about Zimbabwe and the situation there, check out
了解黑人和白人农民之间的民族斗争
our video about the racial struggles between black and white farmers.
感谢您加入我们的试管新闻
Thanks for joining us on TestTube News,
请订阅 这样您就不会错过任何即将到来的视频!
please subscribe so you don’t miss any of our upcoming videos!

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视频概述

介绍通货膨胀及津巴布韦的经济状况

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收集自网络

翻译译者

杜若

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiEiRZhfOl8

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