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幻觉是怎么产生的? – 译学馆
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幻觉是怎么产生的?

What causes hallucinations? - Elizabeth Cox

我们能汇集的不过是转述的经历 从来不是经历本身
从家到国 每个人类群体都是
宇宙孤岛中的一个社会
.
一位叫罗莎莉的老妇人 正在养老院里坐着
An elderly woman named Rosaliewas sitting in her nursing home
飞快旋转的织物突然栩栩如生地出现在她的房间
when her room suddenly burstto life with twirling fabrics.
她从这些精致的悬挂品中可以辨认出动物 儿童
Through the elaborate draping, she could make out animals, children,
和穿着演出服装的人物
and costume characters.
罗莎莉警觉了起来 不是因为它们的闯入
Rosalie was alarmed,not by the intrusion,
而是因为她知道这周围的一切只是个惟妙惟肖的幻觉
but because she knew this entouragewas an extremely detailed hallucination.
她的认知功能非常好
Her cognitive function was excellent,
而且也从未服用过任何可引发幻觉的药物
and she had not taken any medicationsthat might cause hallucinations.
最奇怪的是 一群活生生的
Strangest of all, had a real-life crowd
马戏团演员闯入她的房间
of circus performers burst into her room,
她本不应看见他们的
she wouldn’t have been able to see them:
因为她已完全失明
she was completely blind.
罗莎莉出现的这种症状被称之为 邦纳综合征
Rosalie had developed a condition knownas Charles Bonnet Syndrome,
是视力受损或完全失明的患者
in which patients with either impairedvision or total blindness
突然产生整个场景色彩逼真的幻觉
suddenly hallucinate whole scenesin vivid color.
这些幻觉会突然间出现
These hallucinations appear suddenly,
而且仅持续几分钟 也许很多年内都会复发
and can last for mere minutesor recur for years.
我们尚没有完全理解
We still don’t fully understand
导致幻觉产生和消失的原因
what causes them to come and go,
或者 为什么某些病人会产生幻觉而其他人不会
or why certain patients develop themwhen others don’t.
我们从功能磁共震成像研究中的确了解到
We do know from fMRI studiesthat these hallucinations
这些幻觉会激活与视觉相连的大脑区域
activate the same brain areas as sight,
而这些区域是无法靠想象来引起的
areas that are not activatedby imagination.
很多其他的幻觉 包括嗅觉
Many other hallucinations,including smells,
视觉和听觉
sights and sounds,
也牵涉到真实感官体验的同片脑区域
also involve the same brain areas as real sensory experiences.
因此
Because of this,
大脑皮层被认为在幻觉产生中发挥了作用
the cerebral cortex is thought to play a part in hallucinations.
这薄薄一层灰白质覆盖了整个大脑
This thin layer of grey mattercovers the entire cerebrum,
它的不同区域处理着我们各种感官的信息
with different areas processinginformation from each of our senses.
但即便是在感知毫无损伤的人中
But even in peoplewith completely unimpaired senses,
大脑也能从不完整的信息中构建出我们感知的世界
the brain constructs the world we perceivefrom incomplete information.
例如 我们的眼睛有视觉盲点
For example, our eyes have blind spots
那是视神经遮挡了部分视网膜
where the optic nerveblocks part of the retina.
当视觉皮质把光线处理成连贯的图像
When the visual cortex processes lightinto coherent images,
周围区域的信息被填充至这些盲点
it fills in these blind spots with information from the surrounding area. Occasionally,
有时 我们可能注意到小故障
we might notice a glitch,
但是 很多时候我们感觉不到
but most of the time we ’ re none the wiser.
当眼睛失去了视觉皮质的输入
When the visual cortex is deprived
即使是暂时的
of input from the eyes, even temporarily,
大脑仍会尝试创造一个连贯的画面
the brain still triesto create a coherent picture,
但是视觉皮质的能力的局限变得更明显
but the limits of its abilitiesbecome a lot more obvious.
其中一个例子就是邦纳综合症的深度幻觉
The full-blown hallucinations ofCharles Bonnet Syndrome are one example.
因为邦纳综合症只发生于
Because Charles Bonnet Syndromeonly occurs in people
曾经视力正常 后来失去视觉的人
who had normal visionand then lost their sight,
而并非先天失明的人
not those who were born blind,
科学家认为大脑利用记忆的图像
scientists think the brain uses remembered images
来弥补新视觉输入的不足
to compensate forthe lack of new visual input.
其它感知觉也是同理
And the same is true for other senses.
失去听觉的人经常幻听到音乐或声音
People with hearing lossoften hallucinate music or voices,
有时详尽得 就像全体军乐队鼓乐喧天那样嘈杂
sometimes as elaborate as the cacophonyof an entire marching band.
除了失去感知觉
In addition to sensory deprivation,
软性毒品和治疗药物
recreational and therapeutic drugs,
类似癫痫和嗜睡的情况
conditions like epilepsy and narcolepsy,
还有例如精神分裂症的精神类疾病
and psychiatric disorderslike schizophrenia,
都是我们已知的许多造成幻觉原因的一小部分
are a few of the many known causesof hallucinations,
我们依然在寻找新的原因
and we’re still finding new ones.
一些最难以治疗的幻觉
Some of the most notorious hallucinations
与麦角酸二乙基酰胺(麻醉药)和迷幻药有关
are associated with drugslike LSD and psilocybin.
它们典型的副作用包括感觉干燥的物品是湿的
Their hallmark effects includethe sensation that dry objects are wet
而且物体表面在呼吸
and that surfaces are breathing.
在更大的剂量下 视觉世界中会出现物体融化
At higher doses, the visual worldcan appear to melt,
溶解成漩涡 或突然呈碎片状
dissolve into swirls, or burst into fractal-like patterns.
证据表明这些物质也在大脑皮层起作用
Evidence suggests these drugs alsoact on the cerebral cortex.
但是 当人失明时 通常只会导致视觉幻觉
But while visual impairment typicallyonly causes visual hallucinations,
听力丧失会导致听觉幻觉
and hearing loss auditory ones,
像麦角酸二乙基酰胺麻醉剂的物质则会导致所有感知觉失调
substances like LSD cause perceptualdisturbances across all the senses.
很可能是因为它们激活大部分大脑区域
That ’ s likely because they activate receptors
的神经末梢
in a broad range of brain areas,
包括所有感知觉的大脑皮层区域
including the cortical regionsfor all the senses.
麦角酸二乙基酰胺和蘑菇的一种迷幻药 都像大脑的血清素一样起作用
LSD and psilocybin both functionlike serotonin in the brain,
直接与特定类型的5-羟色胺受体之一结合
binding directly to one type ofserotonin receptor in particular.
而血清素在大脑区的作用不仅复杂而且难以理解
While serotonin’s role in the brainis complex and poorly understood,
它很可能在来自眼睛 鼻子 耳朵和其他感知器官的整合信息中
it likely plays an important partin integrating information
扮演了一个重要角色
from the eyes, nose, ears, and other sensory organs.
因此有一个理论是说 麻醉药和迷幻药
So one theory is that LSD and psilocybincause hallucinations
通过干扰感官整合的信号引发幻觉
by disrupting the signalinginvolved in sensory integration.
与精神分裂症联系的幻觉
Hallucinations associatedwith schizophrenia
可能与由麻醉药和迷幻药引起的幻觉有相似的机制
may share a similar mechanism with those caused by LSD and psilocybin.
患精神分裂症的人 大脑中经常会有含量很高的血清素
Patients with schizophrenia often have elevated levels of serotonin in the brain.
抗精神病药物通过阻断与之相同的5-羟色胺受体LSD
And antipsychotic drugs relievesymptoms of schizophrenia
和裸盖菇素来缓解精神分裂症的症状
by blocking the same serotoninreceptors LSD and psilocybin bind to. And,
在一些案例中 这些药物甚至可以缓解
in some cases, these drugs can even relievethe hallucinations
邦纳综合征患者的幻觉
of patients with Charles Bonnet Syndrome.
在理解幻觉的所有不同原因和相互作用机制上
We’re still a long way from understandingall the different causes
我们仍然还有很长一段路要走
and interconnected mechanismsof hallucinations.
但明显的是幻觉体验
But it’s clear thathallucinatory experiences
比我们曾经认为的 更贴近日常感知
are much more closely tied to ordinary perception than we once thought.
通过研究幻觉 我们开始学习大量
And by studying hallucinations, we stand to learn a great deal
关于我们大脑如何构建我们看 听
about how our brains construct the world we see, hear,
闻 和触的世界
smell, and touch.
随着我们学得更多
As we learn more,
我们或许会去欣赏每个人在感知方面的宇宙孤岛
we ’ ll likely come to appreciate just how subjective and individual
究竟是多么的主观和独特
each person’s island universeof perception really is.

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视频概述

幻觉与什么有关?讲述了几种不同的幻觉,及可能产生幻觉的原因。

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翻译译者

RyanZ

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DlipN61jGA

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