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地震是怎么发生的?

What Causes Earthquakes?

环绕在你周围的所有事物都在不停地运动
The world around you is just full of things that are on the move.
天空中的飞机 公路上的汽车和万千的动物――当然包括你和我!
Airplanes in the sky, cars on the road and tons of animals — including you and me! — are
无论何时都在运动
walking around everywhere.
但是你知道吗?
But you know what?
有证明显示你脚下的地面也同样在移动
It turns out that the ground beneath your feet is moving too!
大多数情况下 你可能感受不到
Most of the time, you can’t feel it.
因为 大多数时候 地面移动的非常的慢
Because, most of the time, the ground is moving very slowly.
当你能感受到地面的移动 那就是地震发生的时候
But when you do feel the ground move, that’s called an earthquake.
在地震期间 地面震动――有时候很轻微 有时候很明显
During an earthquake, the ground shakes—sometimes a little, and sometimes a lot.
支撑着房子 摩天大楼和其他所有东西的地面真的会移动
It might seem kind of strange that the ground, which holds up houses and skyscrapers and
可能看起来有些奇怪
everything else, can actually move.
但它的确――这都是由于地球诞生的方式
But it does—and it’s all because of the way the Earth is made.
如果你把地球切一半然后观察 你会看到地球
If you could cut the Earth in half, and look at it like this, you’d see that the Earth
并不是通常来说的实心的球体
isn’t a solid ball all the way through.
它有许多地层――有点像一个蛋糕
It has layers—kind of like a cake!
在最顶部 或者说地层的外表面――我们通常认为是地面的部分――被称作
The top, or outside layer of the Earth…what we think of as the ground…is called
地壳
the crust.
如今 尽管地壳非常的坚硬――它不是由一大块组成
Now, even though the crust of the Earth is certainly very strong—it’s not made of one big piece.
地壳实际上是由许多大的块组合在一起的
The Earth’s crust is actually made of many big pieces that fit together.
你可以认为这些块是巨大的拼图谜题中的碎块
You can think of these pieces as being like the pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle.
我们称这些块为板块
And we call these pieces of the crust plates.
现在 板块的边缘不是光滑的 就像是
Now, the edges of these plates aren’t smooth along their edges, like the edges of the plates
你吃完饭后剩下的碟子
you eat off of
这些板块由非常厚的岩石地层构成――所以它们的边缘参差不齐
These plates are made of very thick layers of rock—so their edges are bumpy and ragged,
版块边缘有突出的大块岩石
with rocky chunks sticking out of them.
这些板块促使了地壳的不断运动
And it’s these plates that make up the Earth’s crust that are always moving.
就像我之前提到的 你大多数时候去感受不到也看不到它们在移动 因为它们移动的非常非常慢
Like I said earlier, you usually can’t feel or see them moving, because they move very very slowly.
大多数板块一年仅仅移动一或两厘米
Most plates just creep along at about one or two centimeters a year.
比你的手指甲的生长还要慢
That’s slower than your fingernails grow!
但是这些地壳运动是如何导致地震的呢?
But how do these moving plates cause earthquakes?
非常好 如果你有这样的困惑 你可以看看 在碰撞的板块之间有间隙
Well, if you look at pieces of puzzle, you’ll see there there’s a gap between the pieces where they touch.
而且 板块碰撞的地方有一条线
And, there’s a line where the plates touch, too.
我们称这条线为断层
We call that line a fault.
一些断层非常的窄 窄到无法看见
Some faults are very thin, and too small to be seen.
而一些断层处在地壳深处
And some are very deep in the Earth’s crust.
但是有一些非常的大 你能直接在地球表面看到它们
But some faults are really big, and you can see them right on the Earth’s surface.
比如说 这个断层 几乎贯穿了整个加利福尼亚洲
For example, this fault, which runs almost the whole length of the state of California,
有一千多千米长!
is more than a thousand kilometers long!
大部分的地震都是在断层发生的
And faults are where most earthquakes happen.
地壳板块在断层处漂移经过
As the plates of the Earth’s crust move past each other at a fault,
较老的断层有时会撞入另一个断层
the jagged ages sometimes bump into the other
当这些发生的时候,板块的表面――所有在地面上的东西――震动
And when this happens, the ground above the plates—and anything on the ground—shakes.
但是 有时候 板块不仅仅是相互撞击
But, sometimes the plates do more than just bump into each other.
它们会卡住!
They get stuck!
你有过试着打开门的时候卡住吗?
Have you ever tried to open a door that isstuck?
你不停地推……然后,忽然……它飞速地打开然后撞到了墙上
You push and push…and then, all of a sudden…it opens really fast and bangs against the wall!
同时 有时候 两个不同的板块不能漂流经过彼此……然后它们卡住了
Well, sometimes, two different plates can’t move past each other…and they get stuck.
但是它们还是不停的移动
But they keep trying to move!
它们相互推动 就像你推卡住的门一样!
They push against each other, just like you pushing against that stuck door!
当两个事物互相推动彼此的时候 推挤的力量导致产生了我们所说的压力
When two things push against each other, the force of all of that pushing causes what we called pressure.
如果推挤的东西不能移动 压力无处释放
And if the thing that’s being pushed doesn’t move, that pressure has nowhere to go.
它就会向上隆起
So it just keeps building up.
在这种情况下的,压力导致在板块卡住的地方隆起
In the case of our plates of crust, the pressure builds up where they’re stuck.
不停的隆起,直到岩石碎裂……然后板块忽然的移动了
It builds and builds…until the rocks break…and the plates suddenly move.
这导致地壳表面震动……有时更严重
This causes the ground above the plates to shake … sometimes a lot.
地表震动的程度取决于在板块间隆起产生的压力的强度
How much the ground shakes depends on how much pressure has built up between the plates.
压力越大……地震越严重
The more pressure…the bigger the earthquake.
所以在你脚下有许多这样炫酷的事件发生!
So there’s a lot of cool stuff happening beneath your feet!
即使大多数情况下你感受不到!
Even if — most of the time — you can’t even feel it!
感谢收看儿童秀!
Thanks for joining us on SciShow Kids!
我们喜爱观众留下问题
We love giving your questions
所以如果你有关于你遇到的事情的问题
so if you have a question about something you see,
你可以请家长帮助你们在下方留言
ask a grownup to help you leave a comment down below,
或发送电子邮件给我们的邮箱:kids@scishow.com
or send us an e-mail to kids@scishow.com!
谢谢大家的支持 我们下期再见
Thanks ,and see you the next time

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视频概述

满足你的好奇心,带你了解地震的形成过程和原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

僵尸二少

审核员

WeiRan

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AArne-wh_Uc

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