ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

是什么导致了体臭? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

是什么导致了体臭?

What causes body odor? - Mel Rosenberg

一种混合了洋葱 奶酪
A pungent blend of onions, cheese,
和猫尿的刺激性气味 让人想到了…
and cat urine with hints of…
淋湿的山羊?
is that…wet goat?
我们只需要闻一下就能认出这种
Most of us don’t need more than one whiff
令人不快的特殊气味——体味
to identify that generally unpleasant,characteristic smell we call body odor.
但是 出乎意料的 这是一种复杂的现象
But it’s a surprisingly complex phenomenon
受基因组合 年龄 饮食和卫生影响
influenced by our genetic makeup,age, diet, and hygiene.
因此 这个味道到底是什么?
So what is this odor, exactly?
它从何而来?
Where does it come from?
该拿它怎么办?
And can we do anything about it?
首先 这种熟悉的气味由两种物质产生:
To start, you just need two things to produce that familiar scent:
腋窝分泌物
your armpit’s own secretions
以及腋窝滋生的细菌
and the bacteria that feed on them.
许多人由体味联想到汗液
Most people associatebody odor with sweat,
那也是这个谜题的重要部分
and it’s an important piece of the puzzle.
人的身体有着无数汗腺
Your body has millions of sweat glands,
它们主要有两种体现方式:
and they come in two major types:
皮肤上的分泌腺
eccrine glands are foundall over your skin
主要分泌水和盐分
and secrete mainly water and salt.
而泌离腺体
Apocrine glands, on the other hand,
在青春期时出现在腋窝
develop at puberty in your armpits
以及身体的少数其他部位
and a few other places on your body.
汗腺分泌的汗液里有许多蛋白质和脂肪
The sweat they secreteis full of proteins and fats.
通常这些分泌物本身是无味的
By themselves,these secretions are usually odorless.
但细菌在此滋生
That’s where bacteria come in.
我们身体的一个平方厘米都挤满了成千上万的细菌
Every square centimeter of our bodies is covered with thousands of bacteria.
许多微生物在湿润的环境里繁衍 比如腋窝
Many microorganisms thrivein moist environments, like our armpits. There,
腋窝的一个平方厘米有约百万个细菌
you can find about a millionbacteria per square centimeter,
这里是皮肤上细菌最集中的地方
one of the highest concentrationsanywhere on the skin.
潜伏其中的这群微生物是棒状杆菌 葡萄状球菌
Lurking in this throng of microorganismsare species of Corynebacteria, Staphylococci,
球菌和其他菌种
Micrococci, and others.
这些细菌一边吞食着
When these bacteria feed
顶浆分泌腺汗中的蛋白质和脂肪
on the proteins and fats in apocrine sweat,
一边将无味的混合物转化为有异味的新物质
they turn the odorless compounds into new ones that can smell very unpleasant.
最严重的是含硫化学物质
Some of the worst offenders may besulfur-containing chemicals;
它们使体味带有洋葱味
those give body odor its oniony aroma.
混合物种也有羧基酸 使体味有奶酪味
Carboxylic acids are in the mix, too,adding notes of cheese.
这些分子从腋窝里散发
These molecules waft up
直接冲入鼻子
from the armpit and can be sucked directly into our noses,
鼻子中有特殊的神经末梢捕获到气味分子
where they’re trapped and detectedby an array of specialized receptors.
神经末梢甚至能辨别出
Those can recognize odor molecules
百万分之一的气味分子
at concentrationsof less than one in a million.
因此 是什么决定了体味的强烈程度呢?
So what determines how strongyour body odor might be?
它取决于腋窝中的微生物种群
It depends on the resident microbialpopulations in your armpit,
以及腺体分泌的蛋白质
and the nutrients thatyour glands provide them with.
基因决定了分泌物中的合成物和数量
Your genes help determinewhat compounds you produce,
因此每个人都有细微差异
and in what quantity, so everyone has a slightly different set.
事实上 东亚人种有一种转化后的基因
In fact, a gene variant that virtuallyeliminates body odor
几乎不存在体味
is common in people of East Asian descent.
肾上腺素使汗水中的泌离汗比率增加
Adrenaline increases the ratioof apocrine to eccrine sweat,
因此紧张时体味更大
so body odor can be more intensewhen you’re nervous.
每个人的细菌合成物也各不相同
Bacterial composition and concentrationalso varies between individuals
也起了作用
and plays a part.
甚至吃了什么也能影响体味
Even what you eat can have a small effect on how you smell.
因此 我们应当如何应对体味呢?
So how can we deal with body odor?
用肥皂和水冲洗腋窝有一定作用
Washing the armpits with soap and water helps
但是由于大多细菌藏在皮肤底下
but won ’ t remove all the bacteria
所以不能彻底洗掉
since many are buriedin deeper layers of the skin. Deodorants,
然而 香体剂在降低细菌活力的同时覆盖在它们表面
however, inhibit bacterial activity and mask odors at the same time.
止汗剂的原理是形成细微凝胶栓剂堵住汗腺
Antiperspirants work by forming tinygel plugs that block sweat glands,
使腋窝变干
drying out the armpits.
我们与体味抗争的同时 科学家们也试着做出解释
While we continue to battle body odor, scientists are trying to understand it.
不明白为什么大脑
We don ’ t know why the brain
通常排斥这种特殊的气味
often interprets these particular odors as off-putting.
但有学者提出 腋窝分泌物
But some researchers have proposedthat secretions from the armpit
也许有着积极的功能
could have a positive function, too,
比如增强社交联系 提供某种化学交流
like cementing social bonds and providing a meansof chemical communication.
是否有这种作用还不清楚
We don’t know yet if that’s the case.
如今 体味似乎只是用气味
For now, body odor seems to be
证明我们的人类身份
just another smelly partof the human condition.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

有很多因素都能影响体味,甚至我们的基因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小星星

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g96z1P3z5yU

相关推荐