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人们抄近路的行为给了我们什么启示? – 译学馆
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人们抄近路的行为给了我们什么启示?

What can we learn from shortcuts? | Tom Hulme

当我们设计新的产品
When we’re designing new products,
推出新的服务或业务的时候
services or businesses,
只有当用户真正开始使用它们
the only time you’ll know if they’re any good,
我们才能判定
if the designs are good,
这个产品或是服务设计得究竟如何
is to see how they’re used in the real world, in context.
我每次路过伦敦北部的 海布里公园
I’m reminded of that every time I walk past Highbury Fields
都会想起这个道理
in north London.
那个公园非常美
It’s absolutely beautiful.
公园内有一大块草坪
There’s a big open green space.
格鲁吉亚风格的建筑环绕四周
There’s Georgian buildings around the side.
但是草坪中间有一段泥泞小路
But then there’s this mud trap that cuts across the middle.
显然 人们不愿意绕一大圈 更喜欢抄近路
People clearly don’t want to walk all the way around the edge.
而小路有自我强化机制:
Instead, they want to take the shortcut,
一旦形成 就会有越来越多的人走
and that shortcut is self-reinforcing.
我们把这类“近路”叫做“期望之路”
Now, this shortcut is called a desire path,
这类小路对于行人来说是最有吸引力的
and it’s often the path of least resistance.
这些小路让我着迷
I find them fascinating,
因为它体现出 设计与用户体验往往是有偏差的
because they’re often the point where design and user experience diverge.
在此 我应该道歉
Now at this point, I should apologize,
因为此后你们会开始注意到 这样的偏差无处不在
because you guys are going to start seeing these everywhere.
但今天我只挑三个例子与你们分享
But today, I’m going to pick three I find interesting
它们不仅有趣 还会提醒我们
and share what actually it reminds me
研发新产品、推广新服务时应该注意什么
about launching new products and services.
第一个例子来自巴西首都——巴西利亚
The first is in the capital city of Brazil — Brasilia.
这个例子提醒我
And it reminds me that sometimes,
设计产品时往往需要关注实际需求
you have to just focus on designing for a real need
以避免不必要的麻烦
at low friction.
当下 巴西利亚非常迷人
Now, Brasilia is fascinating.
20世纪50年代尼迈耶对整座城市做了规划
It was designed by Niemeyer in the ’50s.
那个时候是航空业的黄金时期
It was the golden age of flying,
你可以看出来 他规划出了一个飞机的形状
so he laid it out like a plane, as you can see there.
不过有些令人担心的是
Slightly worryingly,
他将大多数重要政府机构 都放在了机头的位置
he put most of the important government buildings in the cockpit.
但是如果你将巴西利亚市中心航拍图放大
But if you zoom in, in the very center of Brasilia,
就是图中标注的这个位置
just where the point is there,
你将看到这里遍布着心仪小路
you see it’s littered with desire paths.
真的无处不在
They’re absolutely everywhere.
他们曾觉得这个设计能经受住时间的考验
Now, they thought that they had future-proofed this design.
因为他们认为未来我们不再需要步行了
They thought in the future we wouldn’t need to walk anywhere —
我们可以开车
we’d be able to drive —
所以也就不再需要人行道了
so there was little need for walkways or pavements.
但是你可以看到 人行道还是必要的
But as you can see, there’s a real need.
这些心仪小路非常危险
These are very dangerous desire paths.
比如我们看一下中间这条小路
If we just pick one, in the middle,
如果走这条路 行人需要横穿15个机动车道
you can see it crosses 15 lanes of traffic.
在座各位可能知道
It won’t surprise you guys
在巴西利亚 行人出车祸的概率
that Brasilia has five times the pedestrian accident rate
是在美国的五倍
of your average US city.
人们都很聪明
People are resourceful.
他们总是寻找最便捷的路线
They’ll always find the low-friction route
既省钱又省时间
to save money, save time.
但也并不是所有的心仪小路都很危险
Not all these desire paths are dangerous,
当我抵达希思罗机场的时候曾注意到
I was reminded flying here when I was in Heathrow.
很多乘客对这里的道路设计都很不满
Many of us get frustrated when we’re confronted
因为他们必须从免税店穿过
with the obligatory walk through duty-free.
这让我很好奇
It was amazing to me
会有多少乘客不走左边这条 又长又蜿蜒的路线
how many people refused to take the long, meandering path to the left,
而选择走右边
and just cut through to the right,
走这条心仪小路
cut through the desire path.
这个问题有趣的地方在于
The question that’s interesting is:
设计师是如何看待我们的行为的呢
What do designers think when they see our behavior here?
他们会觉得我们傻吗
Do they think we’re stupid?
会觉得我们懒吗
Do they think we’re lazy?
还是他们会承认他们设计失误
Or do they accept that this is the only truth?
毕竟 这是他们的设计作品
This is their product.
我们这些使用者实际上也参与了产品设计
We’re effectively co-designing their product.
所以我们设计师的工作就是 尽可能满足用户的实际需求
So our job is to design for real needs at low friction,
因为如果设计师做不到 使用者自己也会想办法的
because if you don’t, the customer will, anyway.
我想跟大家分享的第二条心仪小路
The second desire path I wanted to share
位于加州大学
is at the University of California.
这个例子让我明白
And it reminds me
有时候最好的设计方式
that sometimes the best way to come up with a great design
就是顺应用户
is just to launch it.
大学校园是寻找心仪小路的理想场合
Now, university campuses are fantastic for spotting desire paths.
我觉得这是因为学生总是赶时间 而且他们还很聪明
I think it’s because students are always late and they’re pretty smart.
当他们冲向讲座教室时候
So they’re dashing to lectures.
他们总能找到近道
They’ll always find the shortcut.
而那里的设计者了解这一点
And the designers here knew that.
所以他们先建好大楼
So they built the buildings
然后等上几个月 直到人们踩出了小路
and then they waited a few months for the paths to form.
然后在此基础上铺路
They then paved them.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
非常聪明的点子
Incredibly smart approach.
事实上 多数情况 通过类似的前期试验
In fact, often, just launching the straw man of a service
设计师即可捕获用户的真正需求
can teach you what people really want.
例如波士顿的 Ayr Muir 想要开一个餐馆
For example, Ayr Muir in Boston knew he wanted to open a restaurant.
但是如何选址
But where should it be?
菜单又应包含哪些菜品呢
What should the menu be?
在开餐厅之前
He launched a service,
他开了一个快餐车
in this case a food truck,
然后每天换个地方售卖快餐
and he changed the location each day.
他每天也会在餐车的旁边立一块白板 上面写有当天的菜单
He’d write a different menu on the side in a whiteboard marker
以此找出人们喜欢的菜式
to figure out what people wanted.
如今他已经拥有多家连锁餐厅了
He now has a chain of restaurants.
显然 先做一些实验来找出“心仪小路”的
So it can be incredibly efficient
办法极为有效
to launch something to spot the desire paths.
第三个 也是最后一个 我想要分享的心仪小路
The third and final desire path I wanted to share with you
位于UNIH (美国国立卫生研究院)
is the UNIH.
这个例子提醒我世界不是一成不变的
It reminds me that the world’s in flux,
我们要随时准备应对这些变化
and we have to respond to those changes.
正如你们所料 这是个医院
So as you’ll guess, this is a hospital.
我把左边的肿瘤科标记了出来
I’ve marked for you on the left the Oncology Department.
病人通常都呆在图中右下角的宾馆里
The patients would usually stay in the hotels down on the bottom right.
这是个以病人为中心的组织
This was a patient-centered organization,
所以他们为病人提供免费摆渡车
so they laid on cars for their patients.
但是当医院开始提供化疗之后
But what they realized when they started offering chemotherapy
他们发现病人通常都不想坐摆渡车
is the patients rarely wanted to get in cars.
化疗后的病人通常感觉非常恶心 所以他们更想走回宾馆
They were too nauseous, so they’d walk back to their hotels.
这就形成了这么一条对角线的心仪小路
This desire path that you see diagonally, formed.
病人们甚至给它起了名字——化疗之路
The patients even called it “The Chemo Trail.”
当医院最开始注意到这条小路的时候
Now, when the hospital saw this originally,
他们给这条路重新铺上草皮 并没有重视
they tried to lay turf back over it, ignore it.
但是很快地 他们意识到这条小路的重要性
But after a while, they realized it was an important need
病人真的需要走这条路
they were meeting for their patients,
于是他们把这条路铺了出来
so they paved it.
我认为我们设计师的工作 就是铺出这些逐渐出现的心仪小路
And I think our job is often to pave these emerging desire paths.
如果我们回头再看看伦敦北部那条小路
If we look back at the one in North London again,
会发现那条心仪小路并不是最开始就存在的
that desire path hasn’t always been there.
它之所以会出现
The reason it sprung up
是因为每到足球赛季的比赛日 球迷们都会涌到
is people were traveling to the mighty Arsenal Football Club stadium
阿森纳俱乐部看球
on game days,
他们从地图右下角的地铁站出来
from the Underground station you see on the bottom right.
这条心仪小路就这样形成了
So you see the desire path.
如果时光倒流几年
If we just wind the clock back a few years,
当体育馆还没建好的时候
when the stadium was being constructed,
这条路还不存在
there is no desire path.
所以我们的工作就是观察等待这些路形成
So our job is to watch for these desire paths emerging,
再伺机把它们铺设成真正的道路
and, where appropriate, pave them,
就像下面这个例子一样
as someone did here.
有人(在小路上)安装了一个路障
Someone installed a barrier,
然后发现人们要么跨过去 要么从底下钻过去
people started walking across and round the bottom as you see,
后来他们就干脆把这条路铺上了
and they paved it.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我觉得这是个很好的例子
But I think this is a wonderful reminder as well,
它提示我们世界不是一成不变的
that, actually, the world is in flux.
它始终都在不停变化
It’s constantly changing,
比如你看这张图片的上面部分
because if you look at the top of this image,
另一条心仪小路正在形成
there’s another desire path forming.
这三条心仪小路提醒着我
So these three desire paths remind me
我们在设计时要考虑人们的真正需求
we need to design for real human needs.
我觉得对客户需求的同理心
I think empathy for what your customers want
可能是事业成功的最好先行指标
is probably the biggest leading indicator of business success.
设计要满足客户真正的需求
Design for real needs
并减少使用的难度
and design them in low friction,
因为一旦他们觉得这个设计难用
because if you don’t offer them in low friction,
他们可能会自己做出反馈及调整
someone else will, often the customer.
第二 挖掘用户真正需求的最好方式
Secondly, often the best way to learn what people really want
往往是进行前期实验
is to launch your service.
闭门造车很难得出答案
The answer is rarely inside the building.
走出去 看看人们到底想要什么
Get out there and see what people really want.
最后 由于科技的不断发展
And finally, in part because of technology,
世界目前处在剧变中
the world is incredibly flux at the moment.
并且这种变化的脚步从未停歇
It’s changing constantly.
这些心仪小路出现的速度之快前所未有
These desire paths are going to spring up faster than ever.
我们的工作就是挑选合适的小路
Our job is to pick the appropriate ones
并铺设好路石
and pave over them.
非常感谢
Thank you very much.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

如何设计出一个人们真正想要的产品? 让用户参与到设计中来。 "对用户需求的感同身受可能是衡量你的事业能否成功的最重要的指标," Tom Hulme 设计师如是说。在这次简短演讲中, Hulme 摆出了三个富有洞见的例子, 讲述了用户与设计师互动的过程,这些例子中的用户都创造了满足自身需要的期望之路。当你知道了如何寻找它们,你就会发现它们无处不在。

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