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当夜猫子对你的健康有什么影响 – 译学馆
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当夜猫子对你的健康有什么影响

What Being a Night Owl Does to Your Health | SciShow News

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瞧 夜猫子生活不易
Look, night owls have it rough.
除了生活让他们不能按时入睡外
In addition to the fact that society refuses to let them follow their natural sleep schedule,
科学家也发表了骇人听闻的研究结果
scientists also keep publishingall this grim research
告诫他们 可能会比早睡早起的人寿命短
telling them they might diesooner than early birds. Well,
难怪他们难以入睡
no wonder they can’t fall asleep.
但是根据最新睡眠型基因的研究
But according to the latest studyof the genetics of chronotypes,
从学术角度来讲 不管你是
that’s the technical term for whether you
早起的鸟儿 或是熬夜的夜猫子
’ re an early bird, or a night owl,
还是介于两者之间
or somewhere in between,
都会造成多种不同的结果
the results are a little more of a mixed bag.
诸多外在因素会影响你的睡眠习惯
Lots of outside factors can affect your sleep habits,
比如工作行程 或在有光线的地方睡觉
like your work schedule or your exposure to light.
但你是否早起 很大程度
But whether you’re a morning person can also be more
取决于内在基因
of a built-in genetic thing.
本周公布于《自然通信》杂志上的最新研究
This latest study, published this week inthe journal Nature Communications,
新发现超过300种与睡眠有关的基因
discovered more than 300 new genes connected to chronotype.
研究也发现 早起的人总体上更健康
It also found that morning peoplehad greater overall well-being
患某些特定精神疾病的风险更低
and a lower risk of certainmental health disorders.
然而 出人意料的是
But surprisingly, this research didn’t find
研究并未发现熬夜会导致
that being a natural night owl could lead
肥胖和Ⅱ型糖尿病
to obesity or Type 2 diabetes,
尽管其他研究表明
even though other studies have shown
这些健康问题与睡眠习惯有关
a connection between thosehealth problems and sleep habits.
团队研究了来自英国的一个研究数据库中的
The team looked at nearly 700,000 participants,
近70万名参与实验者的
drawn from a research database in the UK
他们将DNA送到私人医院分析的数据
and people who had sent in their DNA for analysis by a private company.
这些人都要求报告了自己的睡眠类型
All of these people also had also been asked to report their chronotype.
根据试验者的基因数据
From the participants’genetic data,
研究人员能够发现351种
the researchers were able to identify 351
与早睡或晚睡有关的基因
genetic markers associatedwith being an early or late riser,
其中只有24种是早前就被发现的
only 24 of which had been previously identified.
这些新发现的遗传性基因会影响
These newly IDed genes wereinvolved with everything from
作息规律 神经元的生长和视网膜组织
circadian rhythms to the developmentof neurons to retinal tissue.
至于这些基因的作用是什么
There’s a lot more to explore
这仍有许多探索的空间
when it comes to what all these genes do,
譬如 研究者认为 视网膜发生的变化
but the researchers think changesto the retina, for example,
能影响光线对人体生物钟的调节
could affect how light recalibrates your body clock,
还会影响你睡觉的时间点
which could affect what time of day you get sleepy.
早期研究表明
Previous studies had suggested links
睡眠类型与良好的精神状态 体重
between chronotype and things like mental health, weight,
以及患Ⅱ型糖尿病的风险有关
and Type 2 diabetes risk,
因此研究者选择重点关注研究结果中存在的健康隐患
so the researchers chose to focus on those health risks in their analysis.
利用高级统计学原理
Using advanced statistics,
不仅能分析这些隐患间存在的联系
they were able to analyze more than just correlations,
还能预测某一行为是否会导致健康隐患
they could actually calculate whether one thing was likely to cause another.
他们还发现早起的人
And they found that being an early bird
在各方面都有更强的幸福感
strongly predicted a better overall sense of well-being,
同时面临压抑症和精神分裂的风险也较低
as well as a lower risk of depression andschizophrenia.
但并没发现遗传性睡眠类型与肥胖或糖尿病有关
But they didn’t find that genetic chronotypepredicted obesity or diabetes,
尽管经常听说肥胖症 糖尿病和作息规律密切相关
even though they’ve long been reported to be linked to circadian rhythms.
这些发现不代表睡眠与肥胖症 糖尿病完全无关
These findings don’t mean those links are wrong,
那些晚睡晚起的人
people who go to sleep and wake up
仍然很可能患肥胖病或Ⅱ型糖尿病
later are still more likely to have obesity or Type 2 diabetes.
但肥胖症 糖尿病与
But the connection could be less
正常晚睡关系不大
about your natural tendency to sleep later and more about
与非遗传因素的关系较大 如你必须要早起
non-genetic factors, like having to wake up early
尽管你是天生的夜猫子
despite being a natural night owl. Or,
这些情况影响人们睡觉的类型
these conditions could be affecting people’s sleep patterns,
而不是其它方式
rather than the other way around.
对于这种情况的解释有很多
There are lots of possible explanations for the association,
我们只是不知道而已
we just don’t know.
因此我们还有很多需要研究的
So we still have a lot more to learn,
但随着研究者收集的基因数据库越来越庞大
but with the huge database of genetic data researchers are compiling,
我们开始能够解决以前不能解决的问题
we’re starting to be able to answer questions we never could before.
说到重大的健康研究
Speaking of really big health studies,
来自威奇托的堪萨斯州大学的医学院研究人员
researchers from the School of Medicine at the University of Kansas in Wichita
提出了电子烟的弊端
may have some bad news about e-cigarettes.
他们的研究 基于40万调查对象
Their findings, basedn on what 400,000 survey respondents
所进行的关于各种各样的
reported about a wide range
健康行为和问题的调查
of health behaviors and problems,
发现使用电子烟会带来更大的健康隐患
suggest that using e-cigarettes is linked to a higher risk
比如中风 心力衰竭和其他与心脏有关的疾病
of stroke, heart attack, and just heart disease in general.
因为有许多对此持反对意见
For those of you who have continued to Just Say No,
以及不明真相的人
and also been hiding under a rock,
所以有关电子烟的争议从十年前就开始出现
the kerfuffle over e-cigarettes began abouta decade ago.
电子烟被当作比香烟更健康的替代品 真是这样吗
They were pitched as a healthier alternative to smoking tobacco, and they are?
电子烟或电子烟杆
E-cigarettes or e-cigs,or vape pens
都是将含有尼古丁的液体加热
heat a nicotine-packed liquid into a vapor
产生能够吸入体内的烟雾
that can be inhaled by the user,
让烟民们有吸烟的体验
which gives them all of the buzz
没有普通香烟产生的烟和焦油
and none of the smoke and tar that comes from traditional cigarettes.
但正因为是新型香烟
But since they’re so new,
相比普通香烟 我们对电子烟
we don’t know nearly as much about the health effects of
会对健康产生的影响知之甚少
e-cigarettes as we do regular cigarettes.
但我们都清楚
But we do know that they’re definitely not better
不吸烟才是更好的
than not smoking at all.
电子烟味道让人愉悦 且被当作
And their fun flavors and reputation
安全产品 再加上炫酷有趣的烟尾设计
as being quote-unquote “ safe ” and also cool fun hip
使得电子烟如今在初高中学生中
designs has made them a little more popular these days
备受推崇
with the middle and high school crowds.
2016年 11%的高中生吸过电子烟
In 2016, 11 % of high school students reported having used e-cigarettes,
比2011年多出9倍
9 times more than in 2011.
还有研究表明吸入电子烟的雾气
There has also been research that suggests inhaling the flavorings
可能会造成中毒
in e-cig juice can be toxic.
因此电子烟不是什么好东西
So that’s not great.
这些新出的研究结果有
And these new results could offer
更多例证表明吸电子烟
even more evidence that vaping is just
与吸普通香烟不同 且好不到哪里去
different from smoking, not necessarily better.
据研究人员分析
Of the 400,000 respondents to the
参与2016年健康调查的40万人中
2016 health survey the researchers analyzed,
将近6.7万人吸电子烟
nearly 67,000 of them were e-cig users.
相比不吸电子烟的33.3万人
Compared to the 333,000 non-vaping controls,
电子烟民中风的几率比非电子烟民高71%
the e-cigarette users had a 71 % higher risk of strokes
电子烟民心力衰竭
a 59 % higher risk of heart attack
或心血减少的几率比非电子烟民高59%
or reduced blood flow to the heart,
电子烟民患冠心病的几率比非电子烟民高40%
and a 40% higher risk of coronary heart disease.
已有超过4%的电子烟民中风
A little over 4 % of the users had already suffered a stroke.
这明显是给电子烟民敲响了警钟
While this certainly seems like adire warning for e-cigarette users,
但这还有很多重要的因素需考虑 首先
there are a couple of important things to consider. First,
吸电子烟的人中 可能有超过两成的人
the e-cigarette users were also twice
同时还吸普通的香烟
as likely to be regular cigarette smokers.
这是一个很大的干扰因素
Which… could be a pretty big confounding factor,
因为烟草也会
since smoking tobacco also
引起中风 心力衰竭和心脏病
puts you at risk for stroke,heart attack, and heart disease.
为了真正看到电子烟的消极影响
To really see the effects of e-cigs on their own,
将来的研究工作需要
future studies will have to do a better
更好地将电子烟民和普通烟民区分开来
job of separating the people who use them from those who use regular cigarettes.
其次 这只是初步研究
And secondly, this research is still preliminary.
到时会在下周的科学讨研会上提出来
While it’s being presented at ascientific conference next week,
这个研究还没有公开讨论过
it hasn’t been peer reviewed yet,
这就意味着仍然存在问题
which means there could still be problems with it.
但很大可能不会影响它成为头条
That probably won’t stop itfrom making the headlines,
这不代表不重视研究的结果
and it does not mean theresults should be discounted.
但是在没有看到最终论文之前
But it does mean we shouldn’t just accept them
不应该表面地就去接受这个结论
at face value without waiting to see the final paper.
可以肯定的是尼古丁会使人上瘾
What we do definitely know is that nicotine remains addictive,
千万不要掉以轻心
so watch out for that.
感谢您观看本集科学秀快讯!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News!
如果你对
If you’re interested in keeping up
突破性的研究发现感兴趣或者是
with groundbreaking discoveries like these or
想了解更多精彩的科学
you want to learn more about all the most fascinating science out there,
非这里莫属
you are in the right place!
只需访问网址youtube.com/scishow动手点击订阅按钮
Just go to youtube.com/scishow and click onthat subscribe button.
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视频概述

熬夜对健康的影响

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收集自网络

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Nacy廖

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pU0DyudkXLQ

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